Microbes & Infection



Microbes and Infection publishes 8 peer-reviewed issues per year in all fields of infection and immunity, covering the different levels of host-microbe interactions, and in particular:

  • the molecular biology and cell biology of the crosstalk between hosts (human and experimental animals) and microbes (viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi), including molecular virulence and evasion mechanisms.
  • the immune response to infection, including pathogenesis and host susceptibility.
  • emerging human infectious diseases.
  • molecular epidemiology/genetics of host pathogen interactions.
  • vaccine development, including novel strategies and adjuvants.

Clinical studies, accounts of clinical trials and biomarkers studies in infectious diseases, unless purely descriptive, are within the scope of the journal.
Microbes and Infection publishes articles on human pathogens or pathogens of model systems. However, articles on other microbes can be published if they contribute to our understanding of basic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. Purely descriptive and preliminary studies are discouraged.
Reviews of a major topic of current interest must be commissioned by a Microbes and Infection editor. Unsolicited contributions and presubmission enquiries will not be considered.
Special issues on the present knowledge of a virulent microbe and the disease it causes, the immune response in infectious disease, or on critical issues relevant to the scope of the journal.



  • original article
  • short communication
  • review (commissionned)
  • special issue (commissioned)



Please use our online e-submission site: https://www.editorialmanager.com/micinf/
Submission of revised manuscript: revision should be returned within two months

BEFORE submitting and/or resubmittting your paper, it is imperative to have the entire manuscript checked by an English mother-tongue scientist. The journal does not correct the English syntax.



General information
Limit the abstract to 200 words or less; limit the text to 5000 words or less. A maximum of 50 references is allowed; and a maximum of 6 figures and tables (total) is allowed. Papers not respecting theses rules will not be sent to the reviewers 
Double-space throughout (including references, figure legends and table footnotes).
Use 2.5-cm (1 inch) margins on all four sides.
Use a font size of at least 12 points.
Number each page top right (title page is 1).
Number each chapter heading, starting with Introduction (see section 6.4. below)
Use either American or English spelling, but not both.

Number lines continuously.
In general, do not use capital letters (except for first letter) for titles, authors names, section headings, etc.
When referring to figures in the main text, "figure" is abbreviated to Fig. (e.g., Fig. 1). When referring to tables, use Arabic numerals (e.g., Table 2).
Differentiate between zero and the letter O, and between the number one and the letter "l".



5.1. Microorganisms
Follow guidelines of the International Nomenclature Committee. Genus and species are written in full the first time the name appears in text; subsequently, only use the first letter of the genus, followed by the species (e.g., Escherichia coli, then E. coli). Note the space between the genus abbreviation and the species.
5.2. Units of measurement
Follow the Système International (SI). Always respect the space between the number and the unit (e.g., 100 °C, 25 mg). Do not use commas for decimals. Use small "l" for liter.
5.3. Use of italic/roman type
Genetic loci are italicized; protein products of the loci are not italicized. Latin words in current use, such as in vitro/vivo/situ, via, et al., a posteriori, etc., are not italicized (note the use of abbreviative points for expressions such as cf., e.g., i.e., et al., etc., which appear in roman type).
5.4. When using Greek letters, use the “font” command and not “insert”.



6.1. Title page 
Title: avoid using uppercase letters other than the first word. Do not use nonstandard acronyms or abbreviations.
Authors’ names: full first name followed by family name of each author. Superscript letters (a, b, etc.), not numbers, link the author’s name to his/her affiliation. The name of the author responsible for correspondence and proof correction is indicated by an asterisk (*) after the superscript letter. Use commas to separate names; do not use ’and’ before the last author’s name.
Affiliations: The complete address (department and/or laboratory, college, university, and full postal address) for each author, preceded by the superscript letter (a, b, etc.) should follow the list of names.
Each address is in a separate paragraph.
Up-to-date telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and present, complete postal address of the corresponding author appear separately on the title page.
6.2. Abstract and keywords
Abstract: a maximum of 200 words, summarizing the objective, and major conclusions. Do not use references, footnotes or abbreviations in the abstract.
Keywords: below the abstract, provide a list of at least 3 keywords (max 6 keywords) which exist in the MeSH® thesaurus. They are in lowercase letters, separated by semi-colons. They are used for indexing your paper and express the precise content.
6.3. Abbreviations
Used as an aid to the reader (therefore, sparingly), for words used at least 3 times, they are defined in the text the first time they appear, followed by the abbrevation in parentheses. Use this abbreviation thereafter.
6.4. Main text of original reports
Each chapter is numbered according to international standard (1. - 1.1. - 1.1.1., etc.). (See model below). For chapter headings, avoid using uppercase letters other than the first word, and do not use punctuation at the end.
The length of the main text should not exceed 5000 words.

Model for numbering of chapters

1. Introduction 
2. Materials and methods 
2.1. Infection models
2.1.1. Mouse model 
Titles in bold and subtitiles in italic not bold

1. Introduction: it should not summarize the results.
2. Materials and methods: avoid the use of commercial names.
3. Results: present the observations, with minimal reference to earlier literature and to interpretations.
4. Discussion: Avoid repeating parts of the Results.
Acknowledgments: personal acknowledgments precede those of agencies and institutions.

Conflict of interest: All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. If you have no conflict of interest, please state it.

6.5. References
References are limited to 50
In main text
Numbered references appear in the main text between square brackets ([1], [2, 3], [4–7], etc.), in the order of appearance in the text, from 1 to n.
In reference list
Numbering corresponds to the references in the text; the list is not in alphabetical order. Journal titles are abbreviated according to Index Medicus and Biosis. Only published work and manuscripts in press (indicate the journal which has accepted them, "ahead of print" and DOI number) appear in the list. Manuscripts in the submitted stage, or in preparation, and personal communications are designated "unpublished" in the text but are not numbered and do not appear in the list at the end.
Please use the order/style given in the following examples, as well as the exact punctuation. Use square brackets for the numbering.
If there are more than 6 authors, the first 6 authors names should be listed followed by et al.
[1]  Wu XB, Tian LH, Zou HJ, Wang CY, Yu ZQ, Tang CH, et al. Outer membrane protein OmpW of Escherichia coli* is required for resistance to phagocytosis. Res Microbiol 2014;164:848-55.
*Genus and species names in italics

An entire volume:
[2]  Melchiorre C, Giannella M. Highlights in receptor chemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984.

A chapter in a book:
[3] Takeda K, Akira S. Toll-like receptors: ligands and signalling, in Kaufmann SHE,  Medzhitov R,  Gordon  S (Eds), The innate immune response to infection, ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2004, pp 257-70.
To obtain the updated EndNote style of our journal, please visit: http://endnote.com/downloads/style/microbes-and-infection

6.6 Legends of figures
Place all legends (including title for each) together on one page. Figures are consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals (Fig. 1, 2, etc.), according to the order of appearance in the main text.

6.7. Figures
a maximum of 6 figures and tables (total) is allowed.
Magnification is indicated by a scale bar.
In the text, indicate where figures should appear: these call-outs are written as "Fig.1, Fig.2", etc.
Upload each figure separately.
Help us reproduce your artwork with the highest possible standards — in both paper and digital format, by consulting: "How to prepare your graphics files"at the e-submission site for instructions, http://ees.elsevier.com/micinf 

6.8. Tables
In the text, indicate where tables should appear: these call-outs for tables are written as "Table 1, Table 2, " etc.
Tables are consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals (Table 1, 2, etc.), according to the order of appearance in the main text. Each table carries a short title describing its contents in relation to the main text. Except for the heading and bottom of the table, avoid horizontal dividing lines; vertical lines are completely omitted from any table. Instead, the first column is left-aligned, and other columns are generally centered. (When making tables, use “insert” command and not “tabulation”).
Only the first letter of each heading is capitalized, and any units appear in parentheses after or under the corresponding heading in roman characters. Footnotes are collected under a table and referred to in the table by superscript letters (a, b, etc.). References in tables are numbered between square brackets, e.g., [5].

Upload each table separately.



Reviews do not exceed 7000 words. References are limited to 70. Reviews begin with an abstract of about 50 words, stating the topic of the review or summarizing its content. The main text may be divided into sections with subheadings, and it ends with a concluding section. All sections are to be numbered.



Follow the instructions for original reports. 100 words (abstract), 2500 words (main text),25 references maximum, 3 figures/tables total.



We provide 25 free reprints. To purchase additional reprints, fill in the order form which accompanies the proofs and return it to the publisher together with the corrected proofs.



Submission implies that the paper reports original research, has not been published previously, is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and will not be published in whole or in part elsewhere (in the same or in any other language). As soon as the article is accepted, the author is considered to have transferred his or her rights to the publisher; submit a permission request using the online form at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions



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Open access 
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
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All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
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Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

The publication fee for this journal is $1950, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.


Olivier Dussurget
Yersinia Research Unit
Microbiology Department
Institut Pasteur
75015 Paris, France

Email: olivier.dussurget@pasteur.fr



Akio Adachi
Department of Virology
The University of Tokushima School of Medicine
Tokushima 770-8503

Vishukumar Aimanianda
Molecular Mycology Unit
Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Shizuo Akira
Department of Host Defense
Research Institute for Microbial Diseases
Osaka University
3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

Marc Bonneville
Institut de Biologie
INSERM U463 ex U211
9 quai Moncousu
44035 Nantes cedex 01

Thimotée Bruel
Virus and immunity Unit
Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Jose A. Chabalgoity
Department of Biotechnology,
Instituto de Higiene,
Facultad de Medicina
Avda. A. Navarro 3051,
Montevideo,  CP 11600
Srabasti J Chakravorty
Keele University
Faculty of Natural Sciences
School of Life Sciences
Huxley Building, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG
United Kingdom
Richelle Charles
The Charles Laboratory at Mass General
Jackson Building, 5th Floor
55 Fruit Street
Boston, MA02117,USA

Sergio Costa Oliveira
Dept. of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais
Av Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG
30161-270, Brazil

Caroline Demeret
Molecular Genetics of RNA Viruses Unit
Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Eric Denkers
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
College of Veterinary Medicine
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-6401

Petra Dersch
Abt. Molekulare Infektionsbiologie des 
Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung
Inhoffenstr. 7
38124 Braunschweig

Benoit Desnues
Laboratory Toll-like receptors in immunity
Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille Luminy
163, Avenue de Luminy, Case 906,13288 Marseille France

Laurent Dortet
Service de Bactériologie-Hygiène
Hôpital Bicêtre AP-HP
Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

Daniel .G. Dunia
University Toulouse III
Purpan Hospital-BP 3028
31024 Toulouse Cedex 3, France

Frank Ebel
Max-von-Pettenkofer-Institut, Pettenkoferstr.
9A Munich 80336 Germany

Francisco Garcia del Portillo
Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana
Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia-CSIC
Campus Universidad Autonoma
28049 Madrid. Spain

 Baoxue Ge
 Laboratory of Signal Transduction,
Institute of Health Sciences,
Chinese Academy of Sciences
 225, South Chongqing Road, Shanghai, 200025

Stephen Girardin 
Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology
University of Toronto
1 King's College Circle, Rm 6336
Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada

Maria Gloria Dominguez Bello
University of Puerto Rico
Department of Biology 
PO box 23360 
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3360

Filipa Godoy-Vitorino
Univiversity of Puerto Rico,
School of Medicine, USA

Michael Good 
Griffith University
Insitute for Glycomics 
Gold Coast Campus 
QLD 4222 Southport, Queensland

Jean-Pierre Gorvel
Centre d’immunologie de Marseille Luminy
Case 906
13288 Marseille Cedex 09

Gilbert Greub
Institute of Microbiology
University of Lausanne
1011 Lausanne, Switzerland

Georg Häcker
Abt. Mikrobiologie u. Hygiene
Inst. f. Med. Mikrobiologie u. Hygiene
Hermann-Herder-Str. 11
79104 Freiburg, Germany

Sven Hammerschmidt
Institute for genetics and functional genomics
Department of genetics
Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald
Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 15a
D-17487 Greifswald

Rainer Haas
Max von Pettenkofer Institut, LMU München
Pettenkoferstr. 9A
D-80336 München

Mathias Hornef
Med. Mikrobiologie und Hygiene
Universität Freiburg
Hermann Herder Str. 11
D-79104 Freiburg, Germany

Stuart N. Isaacs
University of Pennsylvania
Division of Infectious Diseases
502 Johnson Pavilion
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6073

Shibo Jiang
Institute of Microbiology
Fudan University Medical School
N°138, Shanghai Medical College Road
Shanghai 200032, China

Stipan Jonjic
Department of Histology and Embryology
Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka
B. Branchetta 20
51000 Rijeka

Stefan H.E. Kaufmann
Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Department of Immunology
Schumannstr. 21/22
D-10117 Berlin

Natkunam Ketheesan
University of New England,
Elm Avenue, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia

Sven Krappmann
Microbiology Institute - Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene
University Hospital Erlangen,
Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg
Wasserturmstr. 3/5, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany

Dhafer Laouni
Institut Pasteur de Tunis
Laboratory of Transmission, Control and Immunobiology of Infections
Institut Pasteur de Tunis
13, place Pasteur. BP 74
Tunis-Belvedere, 1002, Tunisia

Ana Maldonado-Contreras
University of Massachusetts,
UMass Chan Medical School, USA

Keith Matthews 
School of Biological Sciences
EH9 3JR, Edinburgh, UK

Bruno Lemaitre
Global Health Institute
Station 19
CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Meryem Lemrani
Laboratory of Parasitology and Vector-Borne-Diseases,
Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca

Patricia Lepage
Micalis Institute
Domaine de Vilvert
Jouy-en-Josas, 78350, France

Camille Locht
Institut de Biologie de Lille
1, rue du Professeur Albert Calmette
BP 447
59021 Lille Cedex

Edmund Loh
Tumor and Cell Biology,
Karolinska Institutet
Solna, Sweden
Derek Nolan
Biochemistry & Immunology
Trinity College Dublin
Dublin 2

Shirley Luckart
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Idaho
875 Perimeter Drive, MS 3051
Shirley Luckart
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Idaho
875 Perimeter Drive, MS 3051
Moscow, Idaho 83844-3051

Hugo D. Lujan
Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
Facultad de Medicina
Universidad Católica de Córdoba
Jacinto Rios 571. Barrio Gral Paz.
CP X5004ASK. Cordoba. Argentina

Sureh Mahalingam
School of Health Sciences
University of Canberra
Kirinari St, Australia

Piero Mastroeni
Department of Veterinary Medicine
University of Cambridge
Madingley Road
Cambridge, CB3 OES

Jean-Paul Motta
Institute of Digestive Health Research
IRSD, INSERM U1220, Toulouse, France

David M. Ojcius
University of the Pacific,, Department of Biomedical Sciences
San Francisco, California, USA

Andrew J. Olive
Michigan State University
5198 Biomedical Physical Sciences
567 Wilson Rd
East Lansing, MI 48824-4320, USA

Manisha Pandey
Institute for Glycomics
Griffith University
Southport QLD, Australia

Kai Papenfort
Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena
Bioinstrumentezentrum, M1E3
Winzerlaer Straße 2
07745, Jena, Germany

Bénédicte Py
International Center for Infectiology Research (CIRI)
Université Lyon 1 - ENS de Lyon
21 avenue Tony Garnier
69007 Lyon, France 

Lisa F.P. Ng
Principal Investigator, Chikungunya Clinical Immunology
Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR
8A Biomedical Grove, #04-06 Immunos
Biopolis, Singapore 138648

Joshua Nosanchuk
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus
1300 Morris Park Avenue
Ullmann Building, Room 107
Bronx, NY 10461

David O'Callaghan
UFR Médecine Site de Nimes
186 chemin du Carreau de Lanes, CS 83021
30908 Nimes cedex 2

Eric Oswald
UMR960 de Microbiologie Moléculaire Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire
23 chemin des capelles 3100 Toulouse FRANCE

David M. Pascual
University of Florida
College of Veterinary Medicine
P.O. Box 110880
2015 SW 16th Ave
Gainesville  FL 32608-0880, USA

Firdausi Qadri
Laboratory Sciences Division,
ICDDR, B, GPO Box 128,Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh


Lilliana Radoshevich
University of Iowa, 51 Newton Road, BSB 3-352E,
Iowa City, Iowa 52242

Barry T. Rouse
Department of Microbiology
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-0845

Jan Rupp
Institut fûr Med. Mikrobiologie und Hygiene
Infektionsambulanz/ Med. klinik III
Ratzeburger Allee 160
23538 Lûbeck, Germany
Jean-Michel Sallenave
INSERM U1152, Laboratoire d'Excellence Inflamex,
Université de Paris, Hôpital Bichat-Claude-Bernard,
Paris 75014, France.

Philippe Sansonetti
Pathogénie microbienne moléculaire
Institut Pasteur
75724 Paris cedex 15

Ulrich Schaible
London School of Hygiene &Tropical Medecine
University of London
4th Floor North Courtyard
room 483, keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT UK

Sergio Schenkman
Universidade Federal de Sao Paolo
Rua Pedro de Toledo 669 6a
04039-032 São Paulo, S.P. Brazil

Shin-Ru Shih
Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science
Chang Gung University
Medical Director, Clinical Virology Laboratory, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
259 Wen-Hua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan

Anthony Sinai
Department of Microbiology & Immunology
and Molecular Genetics, University of Kentucky College of Medicine
800 Rose St., Lexington, KY 40536 USA
Tomasz Skirecki
Laboratory of Flow Cytometry
Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland

Graham Stewart
Department of Microbial Sciences
University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK

Shan Su
State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for
Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China

Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Department of Biochemistry, WHO-IRTC
155, ch des Boveresses
University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Adam Taylor
Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus
Southport, Queensland 4222

Masafumi Takiguchi
Division of Viral Immunology
Center for AIDS Research
Kumamoto University
2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 Japan

Matthew Taylor
Institute of Immunology and Infection Research
Ashworth Laboratories
The Kings Buildings, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road
Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK

Burkhard Tümmler
Klinik für Pädiatrische Pneumologie, Allergologie und Neonatologie
Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1
30625 Hannover


Yu-Huan Tsai
National Yang-Ming University,
Taipei, Taiwan
Diederik van de Beek
Amsterdam University Medical Centres,
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Matthias von Herrath
Scripps Reserach Institute,
Department Neuropharmacology & Immunology,
La Jolla CA 92037, USA

Gerhard Walzl
Desmond Tutu TB centre
francie van Zyl Road
Tygerbert, 7507, 19063 South Africa

Honorine Ward
Tufts University School of Medicine
Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases
Tufts Medical center
Box 041, 800 Washington Street
Boston, MA 02111 USA

Louis Weiss
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
1300 Morris Park Avenue
Room 504 Forchheimer
Bronx, New York, 10461

Michael Zdenek David
423 Guardian Drive
707 Blockley Hall
Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Zongfu Wu
College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University,
No. 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210014, China

Chunfu Zheng
Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Infection Diseases
University of Calgary,
Health Research Innovation Centre
3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1 Canada



If you wish to have more information concerning our journal, please write to:

Desk Editor: 
Jean Kanellopoulos
email: microbes@pasteur.fr

Managing Editor:
Géraldine Legras
email: microbes@pasteur.fr  

Institut Pasteur
Publications Service
28 rue du Dr.Roux
75724 Paris cedex 15, France
fax : 33 1 45 68 81 84 

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