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Since its creation, the Institut Pasteur has embraced an international vocation.
Launching of the Institut Pasteur in Laos
In Vientiane, on January 23th, 2012 has been launched the Institut Pasteur in Laos by the Lao Minister of Public Health, professor Som Ock Kingsadat and the President of the Institut Pasteur in Paris, professor Alice Dautry. This is the Institut Pasteur International Network’s 32nd institute. The new research center for infectious and parasitic diseases aims to reduce the risks of pandemic outbreaks in Southeast Asia where such diseases are rife.
The first stone of the Institut Pasteur in Laos was laid on 30 May 2007 in Vientiane. This future non-profit national institute will concentrate on emerging diseases and vector-borne diseases, notably within the framework of the construction of teh Nam Theun dam.
The Institut Pasteur in Montevideo, Uruguay, the fruit of a cooperative effort between the French and Uruguayan governments along with the Institut Pasteur, became part of the International Netwrok in June 2006.
The Network has expanded to include other institutes at their request, including the Stephan Angeloff Institute in Sofia, Bulgaria and the INRS - Institut Armand Frappier in Laval, Candada, in addition to the renewed membership of the Institut Pasteur in Lille and the integration of three new institutes: the Institut Pasteur Korea, the Hong Kong University-Pasteur Research Centre and the Institut Pasteur in Shanghai - Chinese Academy of Sciences. Fiocruz (the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil) also became a corresponding institution of the Network in 2004.
The Network has chosen a region-based structure with five regional centres: Africa, the Americas, Asia-Pacific, Europe and North Africa & Iran. The Network has a joint budget, with each institute contributing 0.2% of its own budget. These shared funds, managed by the Executive Board, which is made up of the regional directors and a representative from the Institut Pasteur, support three major priorities: joint education initiatives, researcher mobility and scientific strategy implementation.
In Brussels, the institute founded in 1901 by Jules Bordet, joined the Institut Pasteur International Network. In 2008, the institute is absorbed within the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Scientific Institute of Public Health (ISP), which becomes, in its entirety, corresponding member of the Institut Pasteur International Network.
The CERMES (Medical and Health Research Centre) in Niger joined the International Network in 2002 with the new status of "associate institute." The CERMES devotes its research mainly to bacterial meningitis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS.
The Hong Kong University-Pasteur Research Centre, founded in 1999, officially opened in 2000. The research centre studies viruses that represent public health problems in the region: emerging and re-emerging diseases in China, as well as SARS, influenza, HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, and hepatitis C.
In 1989, the institutes formalised their membership to the Institut Pasteur International Network, and the related rights and duties, by adopting a Declaration of Scientific Cooperation signed by each director. Since then, despite the closing of some institutes (generally due to major political changes in their respective countries), the number of members has continued to grow.
Before 1972, the various Instituts Pasteur remained somewhat isolated, having little contact among themselves; relationships existed only with the Institut Pasteur in Paris. In 1972, however, at the urging of Jacques Monod, the Board of Directors of the Instituts Pasteur was created, laying the foundations for today's Institut Pasteur International Network. Thanks to the creation of this Board, its anuual meetings, and the exchanges that it fostered, members became aware of a shared patrimony that could be exploited for mutual benefit.
The Institut Pasteur in Côte d'Ivoire, established on 27 July 1972, helps develop rapid diagnostic techniques for arboviruses and also contributes to the surveillance of microbial agents.
The Institut Pasteur in Bangui, inaugurated in 1961, is a public institution recognised for its contributions to the public good by the government of the Central African Republic. This institute devotes its research essentially to arboviruses and viruses transmitted by arthopods.
The Institut Pasteur in New Caledonia was established in 1954. Following a dengue fever epidemic that affected 40% of the population, a mission fro mthe Institut Pasteur came to Nouméa and identified the virus type, leading to the creation of an arbovirology and entomology unit in 1974.
In August 1946, the Institut Pasteur in Nha Trang (Vietnam) created a veterinary unit in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) for the production of the bovine plague vaccine. The Institut Pasteur in Phnom Penh was established in December 1953 and became the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia in 1958. Its research focuses on human buiology and disease.
There, Dr. Claude Chastel isolated the chikungunya virus (1961) and the serotypes of the dengue fever virus (1962) and the Japanese encephalitis virus (1965). Soon after, he discovered the "Phnom Penh bat virus" and conducted research on the poliomyelitis virus and human rabies. During the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-1979), the buildings of the Institut Pasteur were destroyed and nearly all the Cambodian staff were reported missing. Following reconstruction, the new Institut Pasteur in Cambodia was inaugurated in February 1995 in downtown Phnom Penh near Calmette Hospital and not far from the Faculty of Medicine. The Virology Unit was created in December 1996 and the Molecular Epidemiology Unit in January 2001.
Once established, the principal contributions of the Institut Pasteur in French Guiana were the development of a treatment for leprosy and work on the epidemiology of malaria and yellow fever.
Jean Laigret developed the yellow fever vaccine at the Institut Pasteur in Dakar. Georges Girard and Jean Robic developed a vaccine against the plague at the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar.
In April 1886, 16 Russian patients were treated for rabies by Louis Pasteur and returned to Russia cured. Adrien Loir, Pasteur's nephew, left for Saint Petersburg to set up the first rabies centre abroad. In 1923, this centre joined forces with the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine and became the Institut Pasteur in Saint Petersburg, marking the 100th anniversary of Louis Pasteur's birth. This institute became part of the Institut Pasteur International Network in 1993.
Charles Nicolle, then director of the Institut Pasteur in Tunis, discovered the role of lice in teh transmission of typhus in 1909. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1928 for his work on typhus.
Alphonse Laveran was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his research on the role of protozoa in causing disease. Among other achievements, he discovered the malaria haematozoon in 1880.
A permanent mission from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, headed by the Sergent brothers, organised a campaign against malaria in Algeria. A new institute was then formed by merging this mission with the rabies centre, to be called the Institut Pasteur in Algeria. In 1960, the Institut Pasteur in Algeria launched its anti-tuberculosis programme.
The first overseas Institut Pasteur was established in 1891 in Saigon by Albert Calmette; its mission was to carry out rabies and measles vaccinations in Indochina and today is called the Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City. A number of other establishments were also set up in Asia, including a laboratory in Nha Trang in 1895 founded by Alexandre Yersin and an institute in Hanoi in 1925.
Many institutes were also established in Africa, beginning with North Africa. The first Institut Pasteur in Africa was founded in Tunis in 1893, soon to be followed by Algiers in 1894 and finally, in Morocco, in Tangiers in 1910 and Casablanca in 1929. Gradually, laboratories were also set up throughout Africa, including in Madagascar (1898) and Dakar (1923) to study yellow fever, malaria, sleeping sickness and leprosy. Various Instituts Pasteur were set created in Europe - Constantinople in 1893, Lille in 1894, Brussels in 1901, Athens in 19189, and Saint Petersburg in 1923.
Establishment of the Institut Pasteur in Paris.
In July 1885, Louis Pasteur administered the first human rabies vaccine at the prestigious Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. The international subscription launched by the French Académie des Sciences in 1887 to allow Louis Pasteur to found his institute and thus provide rabies vaccinations, pursue the study of infectious diseases, and disseminate knowledge, was successful not only in France but in a vast number of countries. The Institut Pasteur, established by government decree on 4 June 1887, officially opened on 14 November 1888.
The Institut Pasteur's new laboratories in Paris allowed Louis Pasteur to build an extensive team of scientists that already hailed from varied international backgrounds.
In 1889, a year after the Institut Pasteur opened, Emie Roux introduced the first microbiology course ever given anywhere in the world, which he called a "Course on Technical Microbial Research." Students from all over Europe came to take theoretical and practical courses in this new science. From there, students and Institut Pasteur staff scattered across the globe to continue their work.
Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika viru
We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation.
Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV.
Culex quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro Is not competent to transmit the local Zika virus
The southern house mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus from Rio de Janeiro was not competent to transmit local strains of ZIKV. Thus, there is no experimental evidence that Cx. Quinquefasciatus likely plays a role in the ZIKV transmission. Consequently, at least in Rio, mosquito control to reduce ZIKV transmission should remain focused on Ae. aegypti.