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Parasitology Today, vol. 16 No 2, p. 62-67, 2000. Lymphocyte Polyclonal Activation : a Pitfall for Vaccine Design against Infectious Agents. B. Reina-San-Martin, A. Cosson and P. Minoprio.

Due to space constraints, the number of references cited in our paper has been kept down to conform to Parasitology Today style . Here you can find the extra references for every point as they were numbered in the published version.

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2. Minoprio, P. et al (1989) Immunobiology of murine T. cruzi infection: the predominance of parasite-nonspecific responses and the activation of TcRI T cells. Immunol. Rev. 112, 183-207

3. Arala-Chaves, M. et al (1992) V-region-related and -unrelated immunosuppression accompanying infections. Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz 87, 35-41

4. Minoprio, P. et al (1986) Polyclonal lymphocyte responses to murine Trypanosoma cruzi infection. I. Quantitation of both T and B cell responses. Scand. J. Immunol. 24, 661-668

5. Coutinho, A. and Moller, G. (1973) B cell mitogenic properties of thymus-independent antigens. Nat. New Biol. 245, 12-14

6. Andersson, J. Sjoberg, O. and Moller, G. (1972) Induction of immunoglobulin and antibody synthesis in vitro by lipopolysaccharides. Eur. J. Immunol. 2, 349-353

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8. Coutelier, J. P., et al (1987) IgG2a restriction of murine antibodies elicited by viral infections. J. Exp. Med. 165, 64-70

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10. Falanga, P. B. et al (1987) Isotypic pattern of the polyclonal B cell response during primary infection by Plasmodium chabaudi and in immune-protected mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 17, 599-603

11. Azuma, M. et al (1990) Mitogenic activity of soluble preparations from Plasmodium berguei-infected erythrocytes to L3T4+, Lyt-2- and L3T4- Lyt3+ T-cell subsets. Zentralblatt Bakteriol. 273, 401-411 12. Ho, M. et al (1994) Polyclonal expansion of peripheral gamma delta T cells in human Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infect. Immun. 62, 855-862 13. De-Paoli, P. et al (1992) Phenotypic profile and functional characteristics of human gamma and delta T cells during acute toxoplasmosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30, 729-731 14. Cordeiro da Silva, A. et al (1998) A 24 kDa Trypanosoma cruzi antigen is a B cell activator. Immunology 94, 189-196 15. Lohoff, M. et al (1989) Studies on the mechanism of polyclonal B cell stimulation by TH2 cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 19, 77-81 16. Albright, J. W. and Albright, J. F. (1991) Rodent Trypanosomes: their conflict with the immune system of the host. Parasitol. Today 7, 137-140

17. Marrack, P. et al (1990) The toxicity of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in mice is mediated by T cells. J. Exp. Med. 171(2), 455-64

18. Maillard, I. et al (1997) Role of the immune response induced by superantigens in the pathogenesis of microbial infections. Parasitology 115, 67-78 19. Minoprio, P. et al (1988) Most B cells in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection lacks parasite specificity. Scand. J. Immunol. 28, 553-561

20. Motika, E. J. (1975) Cellular basis and nature of the polyclonal hyperimmunoglobulinemia induced by antigenic challenge. Cell. Immunol. 19, 32-40

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23. Hang, L. et al (1983) Induction of murine autoimmune disease by chronic polyclonal activation. J. Exp. Med. 157, 874-883 24. Zhao, Z. et al (1998) Molecular mimicry by Herpex Simplex Virus-Type 1 : autoimmune disease after viral infection. Science 279, 1344-1347 25. Eisen, H. Petry, K. and Voorhis, W. V. (1990) in The Origin of the Autoimmune Pathology associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection (L. V. d. Ploeg, C. Cantor and H. Vogel, eds), Academic Press 26. Lane, H. C. et al (1983) Abnormalities of B-cell activation and immunoregulation in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New Engl. J. Med. 309(8), 453- 458

27. Cole, B. C. and Atkin, C. L. (1991) The Mycoplasma arthritidis T-cell mitogen, MAM: a model superantigen. Immunol. Today 12, 271-276

28. Dziarski, R. (1988) Autoimmunity: polyclonal activation or antigen induction? Immunol. Today 9, 340-342

29. Minoprio, P. et al (1989) Indiscriminate representation of VH-gene families in the murine B lymphocyte responses to Trypanosoma cruzi. J. Immunol. 142, 4017-4021 30. Minoprio, P. et al (1991) Xid immunodeficiency imparts increased parasite clearance and resistance to pathology in experimental Chagas'disease. Int. Immunol. 3, 427-433 31. Zhao, Y-X. et al (1995) Mice with the Xid B cell defect are less susceptible to developing Staphylococcus aureus-induced arthritis. J. Immunol. 155, 2067-2076 32. Wicker, L. and Sher, F. (1986) X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) of CBA/N mice. Curr. Top. Microb. Immunol. 124, 87

33. Santos-Lima, E. C. and Minoprio, P. (1996) Chagas' disease is attenuated in mice lacking gamma-delta T cells. Infect. Immun. 64, 215-221

34. Soares, R. et al (1990) Low T- and B- cell reactivity is an apparently paradoxical request for murine immunoprotection against Streptococcus mutans. Murine protection can be achieved by immunisation against a B-cell mitogen produced by these bacteria. Scand. J. Immunol. 31, 361-366 35. Oehen, S. Hengartner, H. and Zinkernagel, R. (1991) Vaccination for disease. Science 251, 195-198

36. Balaban, N. et al (1998) Autoinducer of virulence as a target for vaccine and therapy against Staphylococcus aureus. Science 280, 438-440

37. Kaufmann, S. H. (1995) Immunity to intracellular microbial pathogens. Immunol. Today 16, 338-342 38. Sprent, J. and Tough, D. F. (1994) Lymphocyte life-span and memory. Science 265, 1395- 1399

39. Andersson, J. Coutinho, A. and Melchers, F. (1977) Frequencies of mitogen-reactive B cells in the mouse. II. Frequencies of B cells producing antibodies which lyse sheep or horse erythrocytes, and trinitrophenylated or nitroiodophenylated sheep erythrocytes. J. Exp. Med. 145, 1520-1530

40. Coutinho, A. et al (1974) Mechanism of thymus-independent immunocyte triggering. Mitogenic activation of B cells results in specific immune responses. J. Exp. Med. 139, 74-92