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Our work is supported by:

The BNP PARIBAS Foundation

We thank Claude Lebos, Gérard Prensier and, most of all, Brigitte Arbeille for their skillfull preparation of SEM and TEM micrographs of bacterial biofilms at  Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Microscopie Electronique, UFR Médecine, 37032 TOURS cedex, France

We are grateful to A. Idja, R. Longin and the PT5 at the Institut Pasteur for their decisive initial technical assistance with fermentors.