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Frequendly Asked Question

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Pour toutes les informations de bases, vous pouvez vous procurer l'ouvrage suivant :

You may find the basic requested information in the book of reference for rabies :

The Natural History of Rabies
vol II
edited by George M. BAER

Academic Press Inc
 a subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers
 ISBN 0-12-072402-2   (v.2)



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METHODS

1998

 WHAT METHODS ARE CURRENTLY AVAILABLE FOR THE DETECTION OF RABIES
OF ANIMALS INCUBATING RABIES?

Rabies is different from other infectious diseases because the virus is not present in the blood. The only organ where the virus can be found before onset of the symptoms is the brain. As a consequence, there is no reliable method wwhich can be used routinely for diagnosis of rabies wwhen the host is still incubating the disease.




IS THERE AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR LABORATORIES CARRYING OUR RABIES
SEROLOGICAL TESTING



The only official international standard serum for laboratory test of rabies neutralizing antibody is the one delivered by the WHO Reference Laboratory in Copenhague. This standard is established for titration of
immunoglobulins for human use. Secondary standards have been prepared for
other species by other laboratories.




RISKS

2003



18 december 2003



Pouvez vous m'indiquer si d'autres départements sont touchés par la rage depuis l'arrêté de 1999 ?

Il n'y a plus de rage des "animaux terrestres non volants depuis 1998".
La France a été déclarée libre de rage le 30 avril 2001.
Depuis, les seuls cas enregistrés ont été des animaux importés: 3 chiens et 1 chauve-souris et des chauves-souris autochtones: 15. cf site de l'AFSSA Nancy pour les cartes






1998



Have rabid cow. Can anyone tell me whether humans are at risk when they have drunk the milk.



Heating or cooking (temperature>60°c) inactivates the rabies virus. So, well cooked meat or milk could be safely eaten, theoretically. Some human contaminations have been reported after cutting up and eating animals, dos especially. Contamination is usually attributed to the cutting up of the animal. When cattle is bitten by a rabid animal, it can be slaughtered within a few days and meat can be eaten, provided that a large area around the bite is eliminated.
As far as milk is concerned, during the incubation period, as rabies is not yet diagnosed, it might be consumed. But, when symptomatic, cows are reported not give any milk(for more precisions, ask the Veterinary Services).
Actually, it is safer not to drink milk or eat meat from a known rabid animal.








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TRAVELS - FOREIGNERS

1998



Australia is free from authentic lyssavirus serotype 1 rabies (which includes wildlife, street rabies and la the "fixed" rabies" virus strains.
The system for protection against the importation of rabies-infected animals seems to be efficient. But even if a rabid animal is smuggled into the country, rapid diagnosis and immediate prophylaxis would prevent the virus to spread, as it is the case in many European countries.



Of course you are aware that in Australia, a different lyssavirus sero/genotype has been isolated in bats.This virus was probably present in Australia for a very long time before its discovery. It is not considered to be an authentic "rabies".










Rabies in bat is different from one country to another. Where do you live, where have you been bitten? Usually, local officers know much more than international experts from abroad.



Rabies vaccines are safe and do not result in painful side effects. they are safe and very efficient. Do not be afraid to receive rabies treatment when it is needed.



If the animals were tested positive, the local veterinary authorities should be informed and the municipal authorities would decide what to do.










Rodents are seldom infected by rabies. It la depends on regional situations. I do not know where you live  (and heve been bitten). Local authorities are always much better informed than experts from abroad.
Please follow your local doctors advice.










Je vais aller un mois au NÈpal. Y a t'il un problème par rapport à la rage notamment ? cause des chiens errants ou bien des singes.
Merci de bien vouloir me renseigner.



La vaccination préventive est vivement recommandée pour les personnes allant au Népal.










Tibet is a highly endemic area for canine rabies. Traveling in Tibet even for a short period of time is a possible exposure. So, pre-exposure vaccination is recommended. The last imported rabies case that occurred in France was in a 50 years old lady was went for a 2 weeks vacation in India.
She was bitten by a rabid dog and she got modern vaccines but no immunoglobulins. She developed symptoms 12 days after being bitten and died 5 weeks after.








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HISTORY

2004



21 january 2004



Nous cherchons une liste des pays indemnes de rage car nous somme sur le point de faire venir un chaton de République Tchèque.
Nous sommes éleveurs français et souhaitons envoyer les bons papiers là-bas.
Pour cela, il nous faut savoir si la république tchèque est indemne de rage ou non.
Nous pensons que non, mais ne trouvons confirmation nulle part.
Merci de votre aide



La République Tchèque n'est pas encore indemne de rage.
Pour avoir la liste de tous les pays indemne, vous pouvez vous adresser à la Direction Générale de l'Alimentation au Ministère de l'Agriculture ou à l'Office International des Epizootie, 12 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris.






2003



29 december 2003Pourriez-vous m'indiquer quelles sont les zones géographiques déclarées atteintes par la rage en France, et si la Loire Atlantique en fait partie ?
Par ailleurs, l'obligation pour le propriétaire d'un chien ayant mordu, de le soumettre à la surveillance d'un vétérinaire est elle applicable également dans les zones non infestées ?
si oui, quelle est la sanction prévue pour le non respect de cette formalité ?



La France est déclarée libre de rage dea animaux terrestres non volants depuis le 30 avril 2001 (cela signifie que les seuls risques sont les chauves-souris, à priori sur tout le territoire français et les animaux importés frauduleusement).
L'obligation de la surveillance vétéinaire est valable sur tout le territoire français, indépendamment du fait qu'il soit déclaré ou non indemne de rage : les animaux voyagent!(décret du 13 septembre 1976).
Je pense que vous trouverez dans le texte de ce décret les sanctions prévues.





2000



Il existe de nombreux Instituts Pasteur en Afrique:
- Bangui
- Dakar
- Abidjan
- Tananarive
-Tunis
- Casablanca
- Alger
A Yaoundé, il existe également un Centre Pasteur qui a une annexe à Garoua.





1999



- Quelle est la date de la premiËre contamination par la rage ?
- Est-ce que le seul moyen de contamination de la rage se fait forcÈment par l'intermÈdiaire de la salive ?
- Sinon, quelle en sont les autres conditions ?
- La rage pourrait-elle rÈapparaitre en 1999 ?



 La rage est connue depuis la nuit des temps: elle était connue dans l'antiquité et un des plus anciens textes qui mentionne la maladie est un code de Babylone qui date du 23 eme siècle avant Jesus Christ



La contamination se fait le plus souvent par l'intermédiaire de la salive, morsure, griffure, léchage sur peau excoriée ou sur muqueuse, mais aussi par le tissu nerveux, travailleurs dans les abattoirs, taxidermistes,laboratoires ou par aérosol,laboratoires ou spéléologues, enfin par tous les tissus infectés..
La rage n'a pas disparu: plus de 50 000 morts par an dans le monde.







Recherche de documentation sur la rage ? partir de 1900-1950...urgent
- Quelle est la date de la premiËre contamination par la rage ?
- Est-ce que le seul moyen de contamination de la rage se fait forcÈment par l'intermÈdiaire de la salive ?
- Sinon, quelle en sont les autres conditions ?
- La rage pourrait-elle rÈapparaitre en 1999 ?
 



La documentation sur la rage concerne des centaines de publications. si
vous ètes à Paris, je vous conseille de consulter les documents à la
bibiothèque de l'Institut Pasteur.



On ne peut définir la première date de la contamination qui remonte à l'origine de l'histoire de l'homme (un à 2 millénaires avant JC.).



La très grande majorité des contaminations se font par morsures et salives.
Très exceptionnement, par aérosols (dans des conditions particulières, grottes au Mexique).



Qu'entendez-vous par réapparaitre? puisqu'elle n'a pas disparue?




1998



During the colonial days (1620-1720), rabies symptomes, transmission were not very different from today, except for the vector which was mainly the dog. Today it it the fox in Europe, but other wildlife species are involved.



The historical aspects of rabies can be found in the book (in french) entitled "Histoire de la Rage" by Jean Theodorides, Fondation Singer-Polignac available at the library : Technisciences, 103 rue de Lafayette 75010 Paris France Phone 33 1 42855044.




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HUMAN CASES

2004



03 march 2004
Un de mes proches vivant aux antilles a été mordu par deux chiens errants, le samedi 28 février,il s'est rendu aux urgences le dimanche, la plaie a été desinfecté, il a eu une mise à jour du tétanos et a été mis sous antibiotiques.
Un des deux chiens a été abattu lundi dernier, la gendarmerie a fait enterrer l'animal; pouvez-vous m'indiquer la conduite à tenir?



Il faut prendre contact avec la DSV, faire deterrer le chien et nous l'envoyer pour analyse.
Il n'y a pas de rage dans les Antilles françaises.
Cependant, il s'agit de la mort d'un chien pendant la période légale de mise sous surveillance d'un animal mordeur. il doit donc être analysé.







23 february :
Je m'excuse d'avance pour le dérangement, c'est en fouillant sur internet que j'ai trouvé votre email et je me permets de vous poser une petite question concernant la rage qui va peutêtre vous sembler ridicule au vu de vos connaissances sur la question, mais comme je n'y connais rien...
Dimanche dernier, lors de mon trajet routier pour faire un tour en montagne avec un copain, Nous nous sommes arrêtés dans la vallée de Munster sur le bord de la route pour satisfaire un besoin naturel.
Nous nous sommes légèrement enfoncés dans la forêt, et avant de retourner à la voiture, nous avons sursauté en nous rendons compte que nous étions à 30 cm d'un renard mort à plat ventre, les 4 pattes écartées en étoile (Je pense que nous ne l'avons pas touché). Pas très rassurés, nous sommes retournés vers la voiture et je me suis rendu compte que j'avais les chaussures pleines d'un genre d'excrément assez clair (du renard?). J'ai donc tout fait pour nettoyer ça en frottant mes pieds dans l'herbe, avec des batons ramassés par terre, des mouchoirs en papier imbibés d'eau...
J'ai essayé de ne pas me salir les mains, mais avec les mouchoirs humides et sales et le reste, il est possible que je m'en sois mis un tout petit peu eu sur les mains ou ailleurs...je ne sais plus...
Ensuite nous avons mangé un barre de céréales sans nous être lavés les mains.
Quelqu'un m'a dit que le virus pouvait se transmettre pas une plaie.
Je n'avais pas de plaie sur le corps, mais dans la bouche oui, j'ai la mauvaise habitude de me mordiller les joues.
Et comme j'ai mangé une barre de céréales que je tenais avec mes mains....



est-ce que je risque quelque chose au niveau contamination par le virus de la rage au vu de ce qui s'est passé? Merci d'avance si vous pouvez me répondre, car n'y connaissant rien, et ne voyant pas des renards morts tous les jours, je suis très inquiet.
Comme proposition sur votre site, une FAQ avec tout un genre de questions du genre de celles que je viens de poser.



Cher Monsieur, Vous ne risquez absolument pas d'être contaminé par le virus de la rage.
La contamination s'effectue en effet essentiellement par le contact avec la salive, c'est-à-dire par morsure, et n'est jamais indirecte, par objet interposé.





2000



I recently read on the CDC's website that the leading cause of rabies in  humans in the US is bats. Can this be true?



Yes, since few years, rabies death due to rabies is mainly the consequence of contacts with bats in the US. This is not the case in other countries, specially in tropical areas, where the dog is still the major vector for the virus.
 




1999



1.  I have read that rabies can be transmitted through a non-bite route through the saliva of an infected animal.  How might this happen?  Could someone just step in  a puddle that an animal has been drinking at?  If they had a cut on their foot could it be contaminated?
2.  I have read that there have been some survivors of rabies?  Is this true?  How many survived and how?
3.  Is there any treatment for clinical rabies?  Is there any possible treatment in the near future?



Rabies is usually transmitted by bites, scratches or licks of an infected animal which exretes the virus in the saliva, on abrasions , broken skin or mucosa. It can be transmitted through the contact with other infected tissues, brain, nervous tissue... Aerosol transmission has been described in caves inhabited by numerous colonies of large numbers of bats or in laboratory workers in case of accidents of centrifugation.
Interhuman transmissions through corneal grafts have been reported some years ago. The virus is present in a variety of tissues and infection may occur through any contact of broken skin or mucosa with these tissues. Indirect contamination, i.e. touching something that has been licked by an infected animal, is usually not dangerous, as far as rabies is concerned. There has actually been 2 survivors of rabies: they exhibit very serious sequellae. A number of prolonged survival in vaccinated individuals have been reported. All died within one year.
Presently, there is no treatment other than symptomatic , of clinically declared rabies. To my knowledge, nothing will be available in the near future.







If the dog that has bitten your son is still alive 14 days after the bite, that means that he was not able to contaminate your son by the bite at this moment (as he had no virus in the saliva). So, your son does not need any post exposure treatment. The symptoms he experienced this WE were not related to rabies. Actually, rabies incubation is usually longer. But I repeat, if the dog is actually OK 14 days after the bite, you son is safe concerning rabies.




1998



quel est l'incubation de la rage pour un homme?



Les cas de rage humaine sont réputés avoir ,des temps d'incubation d'environ 3-4 semaines. Les plus courts sont de l'ordre de 10 jours. On sait qu'exceptionnellement, la rage peut se développer chez des personnes mordues plusieurs mois (voire années) auparavant (extrêmement rares).






Incubation of rabies in humans can vary from a few days to several months , even years. The average incubation period is 2, 3 months in our experience in France. But shorter incubations have been reported in patients experiencing severe multiple bites of the head or the face from wolves. Incubation period of one to six years have been described in a paper published in The New England of Medicine, 1991, 324, 4, 205-211,
Unexplained rabies in three immigrants in the United States. A virologic investigation, by J. S. Smith and coll..







quel sont les symptomes qui affirme qu'une personne a attrapÈ la rage en se faisant mordre par un chien?



La rage humaine se manifeste par un cortège de symptomes assez variés dont la paralysie, des phases e surexcitation et d'apathie, une hypersalivation, de l'aérophobie, de l'hydrophobie (voir un manuel de médecine pour plus de détail). Mais la rage humaine peut également survenir sans symptomes.






If working on a research team, would I be allowed to visit anyone with established rabies encephalitis, in hospital? (I am aware of the precautions I would have to take, such as wearing protective clothing, etc.)  Would I be allowed to speak to the patient, providing he/she is lucid?
I am uncertian as to some of the the clinical manifestations of paralyic rabies (or rabies myelitis). Does the paralysis gradually ascend (Landry's,from the feet upwards) regardless of the site of the bite? Also, when does a paralytic rabies patient begin to have difficulty in swallowing? During the prodromal stage, or only when the paralysis reaches the muscles of the pharyngeal area?



The human rabies cases in Europe are extremely rare. It is thus necessary to travel to countries where the cases are routinely handled in hospitals.
I would like to recommand you to go to India (Bombay or Calcutta). india has a highest rate of human rabies 80-90% of human cases in the world (40-45000 cases/year).



As for the informations on clinical rabies, the review paper from Dr Hemachudha in TYhailand would be useful (Hemachudha, T. (1989). Rabies In Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 12 (56) Viral Disease (Ed. R.R. McKendall). Elsevier pp. 383-404.




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TREATMENTS

1999



Me and my wife were exposed to rabid animals at the Contra Costa Animal Shelter the week of 09-20 thru 09-25-99 and just yesterday recieved the first rabies shots. The question is that this represents a month incubation period what is your thoughts about that. She has thrown up 8 times today and I have been feeling very ill with headaches and stomach cramps and spasms in the cheeks.
Rabies incubbation period can be as long as 7 years. You should go on with your post exposure treatment if it has been prescribed and ask your physiciann about side-effects







Please advise re the following.
Approx 1 week ago I purchased a puppy (i month old) at the loacl market here in Shanghai China. I have two children who have played with the puppy and I have handled it also giving worming tablets etc. I have since given the puppy away since hearing rabbies exist in Shanghai. The puppy seemed healthy and fine and did't bite any of us however It sratch my sons arm with its paw. It also had a cold (runny nose) a day after I bathed it. Do you think we require vacinations ?



Exposure to rabies occrr through bites, scratches, leaks... So, I do thinck that you as well as your children should undergo rabies post exposure treatment.






Madame,



Je vous remercie pour votre prompte reponse.
Il s'agit d'une griffure, non d'une morsure, et occasionnee par l'animal pendant l'examen de sa patte qui, elle, a ete mordue par un animal non identifie.
Ayant entre-temps consulte deux medecins occidentaux ici a Sanaa, dont un ayant une longue experience du pays, nous avons mis l'animal en observation avant de decider le debut du traitement. En effet, les cas de rage observes dans la ville de Sanaa sont tres rares, contrairement aux campagnes environnantes (aucun cas observe durant l'annee passee), et le delai d'incubation nous a ete presente comme assez long chez l'homme pour pouvoir prendre le temps d'observer l'animal. Des que des symptomes apparaitraient chez celui-ci, nous commencerions le traitement. Pour le moment (J+4) l'animal se porte tres bien (aucun signe d'agressivite, de mouvements desordonnes ou de troubles de l'equilibre).



Nous vous tenons au courant en cas d'evolution.
Merci encore, et n'hesitez pas a me relancer si vous estimez que les informations qui nous ont ete donnees ici ne vous paraissent pas fiables (delai d'incubation chez l'homme notamment).



Monsieur,
La possibilité d'une contamination par le virus de la rage ne concerne pas la morsure récente du chat, mais une contamination antérieure qui serait passée inaperçue. En effet, les animaux ne sont "contagieux" par la salive qu'en fin de maladie lorsque le virus a envahi le système nerveux et migré dans les glandes salivaires. Donc, dans votre cas, et même s'il s'agit d'une griffure et non d'une morsure, il est impératif de suivre un traitement antirabique .
En effet, lorsque les symptomes apparaissent chez l'être humain, il est trop pard pour traiter. Ce peut être le cas aussi si vous recevez le traitement dans une dizaine de jours. Nous ne savons pas si ce chat est positif, mais compte tenu de la gravité de la maladie qui est immanquablement fatale, il est préférable de  commencer votre traitement, quitte à l'interrompre si l'animal est en vie  10 jours après la morsure.







The substitution from Verorab to Imovax rabies is quite frequent. These two vaccines are modern, safe cell culture vaccines. There is no need to start another Post exposure treatment in this case.
 







Si vous avez reçu un traitement après exposition complet avec 4 ou 5 injections de vaccins de culture cellulaire et un esérothérapie eventuelle plus un rappel 1 an après (mars 98), la conduite à tenir en cas de contamination itérative est de pratiquer 2 injections de vaccins à 3 jours d'intervalle sans sérothérapie.



En Inde, les traitements peuvent être faits dans les Hopitaux et les vaccins de cultures cellulaires sont disponibles (Verorab, Rabipur, Lyssavac). J'aimerais avoir plus de précisions sur le traitement antérieur que vous avez reçu ainsi que la sérothérapie et les dates.




1998



As a matter of fact, the immunological response to vaccines, as well as other antigens, is quite independant of the dose. There is no dose-response curve, even if there is a threshold dose. The size of the response depends on other factors such as the immunocompetence of the subject as well as the route of administration of the antigen.
On the contrary, Imogam does not induce an active immunological response in the receiver. The posology has to match the distribution volume which is appreciated by the weight.







Depending on the place, country..., where you had been treated 45 years ago, the Post Exposure Treatment against rabies might have been different.
But you should have received one of the old nervous tissue vaccines, as the tissue culture vaccines have been licensed only 20 years ago. If you want to know more, you will have to contact the hospital where you received the treatment.
The 2-1-1 or "Zaghreb" schedule consists of 2 injections in the deltoid muscle on day 0, one on day 7 and one on day 21.







If your son was bitten 28 days ago, and the biting dog is still alive and well, he should not need any Postexposure treatment. Nevertheless, as canine rabies is overendemic in the Philippines, I would prefer to give him a Postexposure Treatment. So, he would be protected, in case of observation of the wrong dog. Postexposure treatment requires 5 injections of cell-culture rabies vaccines, available in the Philippines and rabies immunoglobulins according to the severity of the bite. Postexposure treatment against rabies should be applied as soon as possible






THERE IS MEDICAMENT THAT MAKE  PERSON FULLY RECOVER FROM THE RABIES ?
IF YES, IN WHICH CONDITIONS ?
 



No treatment other than rabies vaccineation and sero-prophylaxis.






AprËs morsure, combien de temps a t-on pour pratiquer le 1er vaccin?



Le plus tôt possible. le traitement est encore appliqué après 7 jours avec une grande prise de risque.




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TRAVELS

1999



Habitant a Sanaa au Yemen (ville ou il y a nombre de chiens et chats errants), j'ai ete griffe il y deux jours par un chat qui venait d'etre mordu par un animal non identifie, probablement un autre chat.
Le veterinaire chez qui j'ai emmene le chat (un habitue de la maison mais non vaccine a ma connaissance), m'a dit que j'avais 30 jours pour me vacciner si qqch venait a se declarer ou si le chat qui m'a griffe devait montrer des signes de rage.



Quel est votre avis? La rage est-elle reputee repandue au Yemen?
Merci pour votre aide, car je dispose de peu de soutien medical qualifie ici.



Cher Monsieur,
Il est impératif que vous receviez immédiatement un traitement antirabique complet. La rage exixte au Yémen. Lorsque les symptomes apparaissent il est trop tard pour traiter: on ne peut être efficace qu'avant l'apparition des symptômes. Le traitement consiste 5 injections de vaccins réparties sur 1 mois: J0, 3, 7 et 14 et 30 avec éventuellment une injection d'immunoglobulibes au début du traitement.







Si vous avez reçu un traitement après exposition complet avec 4 ou 5 injections de vaccins de culture cellulaire et un esérothérapie eventuelle plus un rappel 1 an après (mars 98), la conduite à tenir en cas de contamination itérative est de pratiquer 2 injections de vaccins à 3 jours d'intervalle sans sérothérapie.

En Inde, les traitements peuvent être faits dans les Hopitaux et les vaccins de cultures cellulaires sont disponibles (Verorab, Rabipur, Lyssavac). J'aimerais avoir plus de précisions sur le traitement antérieur que vous avez reçu ainsi que la sérothérapie et les dates.





1998



During recent years (decades), indigenous rabies is absent from UK. The only related event is a bat which was found infected by a virus belonging to the lyssavirus group (serotype/genotype is different from authentic rabies virus.



Other wise, occurrence of rabies cases are reported for patients which were contaminated in rabies endemic areas (as for other West European countries.






I was recently bitten by a young 3-4 month stray dog in turkey approx. 16-18 days ago.  I was in a remote area and unable to receive any medical attn.  The dog, was actually playing and tried to pull my shoe off nicked my ankle at the time.  The dog appeared to be in fine health -learned that it was a stray dog from the beach.  I cleaned the brocken flesh area and put an antibiotic cream on the wound.  I am advised by my Dr. that I should commence immediate immunogloublin and vaccine treatment this week.  We have gone ahead and ordered the vaccines.  Any more thoughts on this and specifically, is there a time when treatment is considered too late i.e  is 16-18 days without treatment still ok if I commence treatment this week?  Also, I would appreciate any feedback on what side effects I may experience from this treatment.  Appreciate any thoughts or comments on this.



Vaccination should be commenced as soon as possible. Follow the WHO
recommendations. There are no side effects with tissue culture vaccinies.





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PREGNANCY

2000



Hello, I am a speech/language pathologist who is currently working with a child who has developmental delays.  His mother had a rabies vaccination while she was pregnant for him.  Is the vaccination safe for pregnant woman?  Could it possibly have caused insult to the fetus?  If you could help me out, I would greatly appreciate it.  Thank you for your time.



Current cell culture rabies vaccines are safe for pregnant women. Several studies have been published, reporting cases of women who had been exposed to rabies during pregnancy and who had received a full course of post exposure treatment against rabies without any damage to the fetus.
Actually, rabies vaccines for humans are killed vaccines which are not contra-indicated during pregnancy. When a person is definitely exposed to rabies virus, she must be treated against rabies which is a constantly fatal disease.





1999



La vaccination contre la rage n'est pas contre-indiquée pendant la grossesse.






This is an excellent website, but I needed to know what happens when I person is pregneat and infected with rabies.  Does it have an effect on the fetus inside the women?



Rabies kills the mother. There is no proved rabies case transmitted via the placenta.




1998



Hallo Friends,
I would like ask You for information if it is possible. My girlfriend had had the problem in Crete (Greece) during the vacation. She was biten by the domestic dog. I made her to submit the post-exposure treatment at the hospital in our country (CZ). Incredible, she found to be pregnant.
Do You know if this treatment against the rabies could be dangerous for the foetus (baby)?
 



Rabies risk is certainly a priority. There is nothing agains rabies vaccination in case of pregnancy. Please check if rabies is actually present in Crete.

RESEARCH

2004



20 january 2004



Bonjour, je suis élève de prmière S et je commence mes TPE (Travaux Pratiques Encadrés).
Je travaille actuellement sur la rage et je viens de découvrir votre site interactif avec le neurone infecté.
Je voudrais savoir à quoi correspondent les inclusions fluorescentes :

  • sont elles dans le cytoplasme ou le noyau ?
  • Que font-elles réagir ?
  • Pourquoi cette technique ?

En vous remerciant de votre aide.
Une élève de première.



Les inclusions correspondent à des accumulations de matériel viral (nucléocapside) dans le cytoplasme des cellules infectées.
Ces inclusions peuvent être mises en évidence après perméabilisation des membranes (fixation des cellules) et coloration avec des anticorps dirigés contre la nucléocapside virale et conjugués (liaison chimique) avec de l'isothiocyanate de fluorescéine.



Cette molécule présente la propriété d'émettre une couleur verte (dans le spectre visible) après stimulation par une lumière ultraviolette.
Ces inclusions sont donc visualisées en utilisant un microscope équipé d'une lampe UV (microscope à immunofluorescence).
Cette technique appelé immunofluorescence est sensible et rapide à effectuer. Elle est utilisée en routine pour le diagnostic de la rage à partir d'empreintes sur lame de matériel cérébral.
Elle sert aussi pour de nombreuses études de biologie cellulaire et de virologie portant sur l'étude du cycle viral dans des cellules de lignée ou dans des cellules primaires (des cellules prélevées sur tissus, souvent embryonnaire).







27 january 2004



How long does the rabies virus survive outside of a host?
What temperature and length of time is needed for it to be inactivated?



The survival of the rabies virus depends on humidity and temperature conditions.
The hotter and the drier, the less the survival lasts...





2000



21 February 2000



Dans le but d'approfondir une recherche, je souhaiterai savoir qu'est ce qu'une souche virale fixe, une souche des rues du virus rabique?



La souche de rage des rues correspond à une souche de virus présent chez les chiens (surtout les chiens errants...dans les rues), d'où son nom.



Le souche de virus fixe est une souche de virus dont les propriétés (temps d'incubation, caractéristiques de la maladie, propriétés intrinsèques du virus ont été "fixés" par passages successifs du virus de cerveau à cerveau de lapin.



Ce sont les souches fixes qui servent à faire des vaccins.




1999



In the case of inactivation of virus is injecting samples in a vivo is totally sufficent and enough to make sure that the virus is inactivated
and is there any possible risks of the sampling way does'nt represent la the sample in the case of that the chemical is not mixed 100% ,and why dont you make another safe step by inactivating the virus by both chemicals and heat,or inacivate chemically already viruses which is atenuatted first and i would like to ask if the fixed strain viruses(pm)differ from street viruses in pathogenty and replication. and if there any risk of stoping the vaccination after one injection if i got sure that i dont need it



I did not understand quite well your question. Actually, there is no danger to apply and complete a Post exposure Treatment to someone who does not really  need it. If there is any doubt about a possible contamination, you should complete a Post exposure treatment. Please feel free to ask a more precise question, if needed.




1998



Transmission of rabies virus is a matter of time and kinetics of virus inactivation. Rabies virus infectivity is reputed to be relatively labile to dessication. It does not survive a very long time after excretion by an organism. However the destruction of infectivity is progressive and la depends on how long the virus has been kept dry. And this depends on the environnement of the virus, whether it is protected or not by the initial solution (containing proteins, glucides, ions, etc), and also on the temperature (destruction by high temperatures). It must not be forgotten that freeze-drying (lyophilization) is one procedure for preserving infectivity of viruses.  It is thus difficult to establish a general scheme of virus inactivation and state that dried virus is not infective, it la depends on the specific conditions in each case which determine the kinetics of virus inactivation.






Heat and dryness destroy the rabies virus. Freezing is a way of preserving the virus. Touching a rabid animal can be a route of contamination only if there is saliva or brain tissue on it and you have wounds, even small ones, on your skin.
Could you please give more information concerning what has happened?







I have heard the two types of rabies are dumb and ferious, is this true and why.   thank you



It is true both dumb and furious rabies forms exists with la the intermediary stages. The reason it occurs this way is not known, however, it has to do with the characteristics of the immune response. But it must be reminded that rabies can also occur without any clinical sign.




Debut de Page





VACCINATIONS

2000



21 February 2000



I was bitten by my 8 month old dog on Feb. 5, 2000.  He was vaccinated against rabies when he was 4 months old.  Today is Feb. 16, 2000.  He was acting strangely from Feb. 5 - 11 (lethargic, moaning and whining, not sleeping well) but did eat, sleep and urinate/deficate normally.  By the 11th/12th, he was acting like himself again.  Last night, Feb. 15, he again started acting strangely.  As far as I know, he has not been bitten by anything (he has no bites, scratches, or open wounds) but I beleive that while he is outside he may have picked up a Muskrat in his mouth (did not kill or ingest it).  Being that he is vaccinated, and has been under our observation for the past 11 days, what are the chances he may have rabies?  What are the chances I might? 



I have been feeling a bit ill (slight scratchy throat, small cough, slight fever, achy) I did NOT go for the series of shots - should I?  Is it too late?  I am only nervous now, because the dog is acting "strangely" again! (not vicious). He has his periods of time where he seems fine, but then acts strange again.  He only bit me when I tried to take a chew toy from him, but he had never done that before.  Please let me know what you think as soon as possible, as I am worried, but would just like to put my mind at ease.  THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!!



It is always difficult to give comments at distance. Because it is difficult to evaluate what is the risk of rabies locally (are there rabies cases in animals in your region, if your dog can be bitten by wildlife etc). It is better to check with local health and veterinary authorities.
From what you wrote, the risk of rabies is small since your pet had been vaccinated 4 month ago. You should check with your local vet for the possibility that your dog might have had another disease (viral or parasitic) other than rabies.







Could you please explain the possibility of this disease lying dormant in a domestic vaccinated dog who's vaccination had expired approximately 5 months prior, exposed to but not definitely bitten by a positively identified rabid skunk?  The vaccine was a 3 year vaccine, and the dog was boostered within 3 hours of the exposure.  The dog is being quarentined, and after 23 days is still perfectly healthy.  Is the theory of dormancy valid?  If it is, how would one know when the dog could start shedding virus and how many doccumented cases of dormancy are you aware of? 



Thank you for your time!!



Where did you get the "theory dormancy" from? I do not remember of case of dog being vaccinated correctly and subsequently shedding virus in the US (I presume you live there). Usually, a dog excretes virus after onset of the disease, and thus manifests all the clinical signs of rabies. Long incubation of rabies occurs in Ethiopia with a virus strain which is different from those found in the americas.




1999



The information are very important and I will get part of my time just to go deeply on that.
I'm searching for a  supplier of anti-rabic vaccines inside your Institute. Could you provide me the name/address/fax number of commercial departmment able to sell a.m. vaccines ? It seems that Merieux Institute does it.



The Institut Pasteur is a research foundation that do not produce vaccine.



You can find rabies vaccine at Pasteur Mérieux Connaught, which is available in Brazil. The fax number in France is, 00 33  4 7273 7981.






I was given the rabies vaccine in 1946 when I was 18 months old.  I can still remember the event of the dog bite and the subsequent pain and trauma of the abdominal injections, one a day for fifteen days.  As an adult, I gave birth twice and both times my children had birth defects, the second more severe than the first causing his death shortly after birth. 



My parents and my husband were all from large families and there is no family history on either side to indicate that this would be an inheirited genetic trait.  Are there indications that this could have been the result of the vaccine, I know it was probably less sophisticated in the '40s?  I would be very interested to know if there have been post-vaccination studies of that time and the results of those studies.



Dear Madam,
It is impossible to answer your question not knowing what vaccine you were given and the the time between post exposure treatment and your pregnancies. Nevertheless, I do not have any such record in my mind. But you should ask were you had received this treatment. Actually, rabies post exposure treatment is the only way of avoiding rabies in exposed patients and rabies is always fatal.Nowadays, cell culture rabies vaccines can be given even to pregnant women.







Please advise re the following.
Approx 1 week ago I purchased a puppy (i month old) at the loacl market here in Shanghai China. I have two children who have played with the puppy and I have handled it also giving worming tablets etc. I have since given the puppy away since hearing rabbies exist in Shanghai. The puppy seemed healthy and fine and did't bite any of us however It sratch my sons arm with its paw. It also had a cold (runny nose) a day after I bathed it. Do you think we require vacinations ?



Exposure to rabies occrr through bites, scratches, leaks... So, I do thinck that you as well as your children should undergo rabies post exposure treatment.






Habitant a Sanaa au Yemen (ville ou il y a nombre de chiens et chats errants), j'ai ete griffe il y deux jours par un chat qui venait d'etre mordu par un animal non identifie, probablement un autre chat.
Le veterinaire chez j'ai emmene le chat (un habitue de la maison mais non vaccine a ma connaissance), m'a dit que j'avais 30 jours pour me vacciner si qqch venait a se declarer ou si le chat qui m'a griffe devait montrer des signes de rage.



Quel est votre avis? La rage est-elle reputee repandue au Yemen?
Merci pour votre aide, car je dispose de peu de soutien medical qualifie ici.



Cher Monsieur,
Il est impératif que vous receviez immédiatement un traitement antirabique complet. La rage existe au Yémen. Lorsque les symptomes apparaissent il est trop tard pour traiter: on ne peut être efficace qu'avant l'apparition des symptômes. Le traitement consiste 5 injections de vaccins réparties sur 1 mois: J0, 3, 7 et 14 et 30 avec éventuellment une injection d'immunoglobulibes au début du traitement.







Il est très recommandé d'être vacciné contre la rage quand on va en Inde.
Pour le reste, il n'y a pas de vaccinations obligatoires, mais beaucoup de recommandées. Pour cela et la prophylaxie du paludisme, il faut consulter un médecin, de préférence spécialisé en médecine du travail. Votre ami peut prendre RV à l'hopital de l'Institut Pasteur auprès du Dr. Goudal(tel: 3843).







Rabies shots are given either in the deltoid muscle or in the thigh for babies.
In the past, they were given in the on the abdomen because it was necessary to give multiple shots and therefore to have a large "surface". But now, only a few doses are necessary, as the efficacy of the vaccine is much higher.







 I am writing a research paper on rabies.  In the past rabies shots were given through the abdomen.  Are they still administered that way?
Thank you.



The first vaccines were prepared in brain tissues. They were inoculated into the abdomen because large volumes of vaccines were needed. Today, the new tissue culture vaccines require smaller volumes of vaccines which can be inoculated intra muscularly (in the arm) or intra dermally.






En France, l'épidémie de rage concerne la faune sauvage, et plus particulièrement le renard roux. La vaccination orale de la faune sauvage par des vaccins largués parhélicoptère a été particulièrement efficace, et la des truction des animaux est officiellement arrêtée depuis longtemps.
Pour plus de renseignements vous pouvez joindre le CNEVA-LERPAS à Malzeville, responsable du programme de vaccination orale des renards en France.







Nous vaccinons fréquemment des individus en dehors de toute contamination, de façon dite préventive , ou avant exposition contre la rage, comme pour d'autres affections. Les vaccins actuels sont efficaces et sûrs. La vaccination préventive est bien tolérée et assure un certain degré de protection en cas de contamination ultérieure. Dans ce cas, seuls deux rappels espacés de 3 jours sont nécessaires.
La vaccination avant exposition est recommandée justement pour les sujets qui sont loin d'un centre de traitement, chez lesquels le traitement risque d'être commencé tardivement. En cas de rappel, le taux d'anticorps atteint plus rapidement une valeur suffisante,et le ssujets sont plus rapidement protégés.







The Institut Pasteur does not produce any vacine at the moment. The only manufacturer of rabies vaccine in France is Pasteur Merieux Connaught, 58 avenue Leclerc Lyon.




1998



Effectivement, les employés des abattoirs font partie des sujets exposés au risque de rage. La vaccination dite avant exposition doit à ce titre leur être proposée. Elle n'est pas obligatoire. Un fait à prendre en compte est l'endémie rabique dans la zone où vous êtes ou bien dans celle(s) d'où proviennent les animaux.
La vaccination antirabique avant exposition nécessite 3 injections à J0, J7, J21 ou J28. Un rappel est fait un an après et tous les 5 ans. Les sérologies ne sont utiles que chez les sujets particulièrement exposés, (laboratoires travaillant sur le virus de la rage...), ou bien chez les sujets immunodéprimés...
En cas de suspicion de contamination chez un sujet vacciné avant exposition, il faut pratiquer 2 injections de rappel à J0 et J3. La sérothérapie n'est pas indiquée.







The WHO Expert Committzee on rabies has published recommandations in a technical report series (N° 824), Geneva, 1992. The level for neutralizing antibody considered to protect is 0.5 Internationa Unit. After one year, the titer presumably needs to be boostered by a vaccine shot. It varies with individual responses. Those levels are low after several years without follow-up but can be boostered any time.




Debut de Page





ANIMAL RABIES

2003



13 december 2003



i would like to know if anyone knows the approcamite period before the onset of rabies sign in a large breed dog. >:/ my dog may have come into contact with them. please help



You must see a veterinarian, who will tell you according to the vaccination status of your dog as well as the epidemiology of rabies in the geographic area where you live, what to do.
The incubation period can vary a lot, but is usually of several weeks, or months. So, see your vet as soon as possible.





2000



07 February 2000



We are a UK based dog training group who specialise in disaster work. We would like any information and possible alternative methods of looking after our dogs while deployed abroad. We would specifically like to have any suggestions which might help us to find alternative but safe methods other than quarantine on return.
How long can the virus last in the open air? What would be the risk factor in working dogs on a lead or very close to the handler of contracting the disease. is it manageable? Are there different strains of virus and will one vaccine not give immunity from them all?



Your situation is definitively one that needs immunization of the dogs with a rabies vaccine. The commercial vacciines are safe, potent and will efficiently protect the immunized animals against the potential risk of rabies transmission through a bite from a rabid animal.



 Rabies virus is not transmitted through the air in normal conditions, the virus does not survive in the air. Note that rabies has virtually disapprearred in many european countries just with vaccination of foxes since the dog is not any more the reservoir but a secondary vector.
 






Can a puppy have rabies...how many weeks old?



All mammalians are susceptible to rabies virus infection, specially the younger animals. My advice is that you should consult your vet and have your puppies immunized agains rabies.










Could you please explain the possibility of this disease lying dormant in a domestic vaccinated dog who's vaccination had expired approximately 5 months prior, exposed to but not definitely bitten by a positively identified rabid skunk?  The vaccine was a 3 year vaccine, and the dog was boostered within 3 hours of the exposure.  The dog is being quarentined, and after 23 days is still perfectly healthy.  Is the theory of dormancy valid?  If it is, how would one know when the dog could start shedding virus and how many doccumented cases of dormancy are you aware of? 
Thank you for your time!!



Where did you get the "theory dormancy" from? I do not remember of case of
dog being vaccinated correctly and subsequently shedding virus in the US (I
presume you live there). Usually, a dog excretes virus after onset of the
disease, and thus manifests all the clinical signs of rabies. Long
incubation of rabies occurs in Ethiopia with a virus strain which is
different from those found in the americas.








1999



Hello, I found your site via a link on the Kansas University Vet site when I looked up rabies on the net.  I live in the Golan Heights and we presently have a local outbreak of rabies from a stray dog which we think was bitten by a fox.  The dog was confirmed with rabies after having bitten 4 children, a few dogs and a stray cat.  Now the strategy is to destroy all the dogs without vacccine, to put oisoned meat near our town (we are on the edge of a nature reserve) and to gather all the stray and domestic cats and have them destroyed.  My question is, I have 2 cats which are not vaccinated.  I don't understand why they can't be vaccinated and quarintined - or do they have to be quaritined first and then vaccinated after six months?  I thought in a small animal it only takes a month and half at most to show if the animal has the disease. Does the vaccine stimulate the disease if the animal has already been bitten? Is there anyway to test the animal for the virus rather then destroying it?  It seems a rather brutal management system to destroy everything in order to weed out the few that might carry the disease...and in the process destroy a good part of a protected wild population.  Is the oral vaccine available for wildlife? Effective?  Thank you,



The oral vaccine has been very effective against fox rabies in Europe.
The legislation in France is to euthanize all animals which have been in
contact with rabid animals, except those which have been correctly
vaccinated against rabies and have got a booster within 5 days after
exposure to the rabid animal. Exceptions are sometimes made for precious,
endangered or special animals which are quarantined. Presently , I do not
know any technic which is able to give a reliable diagnosis in vivo.
Biological diagnosis in animals is performed on the brain.
Local veterinarians can give you the correct procedures in your country. As
far as rabies is concerned security is the goal.








Can you tell me if squirrels get rabies?  A doctor told me they don't get rabies because they don't eat meat.  Is this true?  Thanks for your
reply...



All mammals can get rabies. Skirrels can get rabies when  bitten by a rabid
vector. The disease is transmitted by bites, certainly not by eating meat.








Habitant a Sanaa au Yemen (ville ou il y a nombre de chiens et chats errants), j'ai ete griffe il y deux jours par un chat qui venait d'etre mordu par un animal non identifie, probablement un autre chat.
Le veterinaire chez j'ai emmene le chat (un habitue de la maison mais non vaccine a ma connaissance), m'a dit que j'avais 30 jours pour me vacciner si qqch venait a se declarer ou si le chat qui m'a griffe devait montrer des signes de rage.



Quel est votre avis? La rage est-elle reputee repandue au Yemen?
Merci pour votre aide, car je dispose de peu de soutien medical qualifie ici.



Cher Monsieur,
Il est impératif que vous receviez immédiatement un traitement antirabique
complet. La rage exixte au Yémen. Lorsque les symptomes apparaissent il est
trop tard pour traiter: on ne peut être efficace qu'avant l'apparition des
symptômes. Le traitement consiste 5 injections de vaccins réparties sur 1
mois: J0, 3, 7 et 14 et 30 avec éventuellment une injection
d'immunoglobulibes au début du traitement.








Bonjour, Pourriez vous m'indiquer si des animaux en  l'occurrence des poules attaquées par un renard non identifié  (morsure au cou des
volailles) sont bonne ou non à la consommation  après congélation des volailles . merci de votre  réponse.



A priori, les poules ont peu de chance de transmettre la rage. La survie du
virus dans une carcasse rabique est préservée par la congélation. Le visu
est détruit par la chaleur, et donc la cuisson.








Mis à part 1-3 cas de rage selvatique dans la zone frontalière dans l'est
de la France, l'ensemble du territoire français est indemne de rage locale.
En effet, le territoire français peut-être à tout moment le siège d'un cas
isolé de rage importé (cas humain ou animal domestique). Ainsi la notion de
zone à risque en France prend une autre dimension lorsqu'on observe qu'un
cas de rage (chien par exemple) peut être décelé dans une région indemne de
rage, et que  tous les cas de rage humaine survenant en France sont des cas
de rage importée.








En France, l'épidémie de rage concerne la faune sauvage, et plus
particulièrement le renard roux. La vaccination orale de la faune sauvage
par des vaccins largués parhélicoptère a été particulièrement efficace, et
la des truction des animaux est officiellement arrêtée depuis longtemps.
Pour plus de renseignements vous pouvez joindre le CNEVA-LERPAS à
Malzeville, responsable du programme de vaccination orale des renards en
France.








is there any chance of infection with rage(rabia)if there wasn't any contact whith the suspected animal?



The great majority of rabies contamination occurs through animal bites.
There are only few reported cases of aerosol contamination in very specific
conditions.








Does a two month old puppy of domestic dog possibly transmit rabies as a "carrier" by being "immune" to it. What is the reason that puppies are vaccinated for rabies only after they are two months old? Is it possible for the puppy then to be immune and infect other animals with its bite within this period?



Young puppies are usually protected by maternal immunity if the animal was
vaccinated. It is useless to vaccinate too young puppies because they have
not yet developed an efficient immune system.








In France, if an animal is not correctly immunized against rabies and has
been bitten by a rabid animal, he must be euthanized. The only exceptions
are:
- correctly immunized animals who get a booster within five days after the bite;
- rare species which must undergo a quarantine lasting 6 months.
In your case, I do thinck that the quarantine should be 6 months. And, for
sure, keep your family, especially children away from the pup.






1998



If the dog that has bitten your son is still alive 14 days after the bite,
that means that he was not able to contaminate your son by the bite at this
moment (as he had no virus in the saliva). So, your son does not need any
post exposure treatment. The symptoms he experienced this WE were not
related to rabies. Actually, rabies incubation is usually longer. But I
repeat, if the dog is actually OK 14 days after the bite, you son is safe
concerning rabies.








L'incubation de la rage est totalement asymptomatique et peut durer des
années effectivement. Un chat nouveau-né peut bien sûr être porteur de la
rage et la transmettre.






Debut de Page





BATS

2000



I recently read on the CDC's website that the leading cause of rabies in  humans in the US is bats. Can this be true?



Yes, since few years, rabies death due to rabies is mainly the consequence
of contacts with bats in the US. This is not the case in other countries,
specially in tropical areas, where the dog is still the major vector for
the virus.

 






1998



Bats are harbouring rabies virus in the Americas. It is thus a potential
source of contamination for humans. In fact, human patients have died from
rabid bats contacts in the US, and from bites in Latin America, mainly from
desmodus vampire bats. Contamination can also occur by aerosols in caverns
of defined humidity due to the suspension of rabies virus-infected bat
urine.



In your case, you must rely your decision of treatment on several
parameters. What is the bat species? is there any diagnosis been performed?
is there any bite? did the event occur in rurtal areas, urban areas, in a
bat cavern?, You have to evaluate if the urine is the only source of
potential contamination.



There are several experts for rabies in bats in Brazil. You can address the
question to Dr. Phyllis Romijn in Rio (phyllis@openlink.com.br). She can
certainly communicate easily with you.






Debut de Page





TRANSMISSION

2004



28 february 2004 Au cours d'un voyage au costa rica, mon mari s'est fait mordre par un pizote (raton laveur).
Inquiète quant aux conséquences possibles d'une telle morsure je souhaiterais savoir quelles sont les risques et quelle sont les démarches à effectuer.



Le raton-laveur est le principal vecteur de la rage en Amérique du Nord.
Votre mari doit donc consulter au plus tôt le centre antirabique le plus proche de votre domicile (liste des centres à l'adresse suivante http://www.pasteur.fr/sante).
Il est impératif que son cas soit évalué et qu'un traitement soit débuté au plus tôt, s'il est indiqué.








5 february 2004
I've read ALL your Q & A's & learned much. Still have a question or 2 of my own & wish to relate our situation.
On January 17th, my 2 nieces & I were bit by a Roteweiller dog.
He has never bitten or snarled at me as I walk him & feed him. I think only reason this happened is me trying to protect my niece because he started to attack her (never liked her). She had several scratches on her arm but bad bites on her one leg. One had 6 stitches inside & 11 on outside; other had 7 stitches & another 6. Other niece had light scratch & bruise on arm; I had puncture marks on my back with long scratch & same on one leg. IF the dog did not have rabies shot in last yr., should we worry? Tomorrow will be 20 days and no signs of anything out of ordinary with dog (neighbor pet)except he growled at visitor last night. He was looked at from state dog warden initially and again after quarantine of 10 days & said he does not have rabies.
This is from just observing him w/o samples, bloodwork or testing!
My sister is panicky & so am I now, since she today was told her daughter was past the point of help. Tomorrow makes 20 days. Some of what I read on your site it that even those long after that are encouraged and can still get treatment. Is this true? We have a low Rabies case in our county & the dog seems normal. And so do all of us- but who knows?



The gestation period can take as you say up to several months to even manifest itself in the animal.
What do you suggest? We wait for your expert help and pleas hurry...we're ALL worried beyond belief!
If the dog which has bitten your nieces and yourself is still alive 20 days after the bites, there is no risk of rabies transmission for your nieces as well as you.








8 january 2004
Je suis allee en vacances en Thailande et ma fille agee de 3 ans c est fait mordre par un singe a koh phi phi.
Je suis allee voir un medecin qui m a dit qu il n y avait rien a faire et que de toute facon il n avait pas le vaccin.
Quand pensez vous?
que dois je faire?


Il faut consulter absolument un médecin et faire un traitement antirabique le plus rapidement possible, car il y a de la rage en Thailande.
Je pense que vous trouverez des vaccins sans problèmes en Chine.
Consultez aussi vite que possible.








8 january 2004
Je me permets de vous contacter afin de vous demander conseil :



J'ai été mordu légèrement ( mais petits saignements ) par un chien dans la rue en ville samedi dernier. Son maître était présent mais ne s'est pas arrêté donc je ne connais pas l'origine de ce chien .
Dois-je effectuer un traitement antirabique ?



Dans la mesure où la surveillance du chien s'avère impossible je vous conseille vivement de consulter le médecin du centre antirabique le plus proche de votre domicile afin d'évaluer avec lui le risque éventuel de rage et si nécessaire de mettre en route un traitement antirabique.






2003:



29 december 2003
Mon fils a été mordu par une souris, alors qu'il tentait de la délivrer des griffes du chat.
Y a-t-il un risque de contamination de la rage en pareil cas ?
La blessure n'était pas très profonde mais les dents ont néanmoins traversé la peau du doigt. (Nous sommes dans le Maine et Loire)
 



En France , nous n'avons pas retrouvé de souris infectée  par le virus de la rage. de plus, la France est déclarée indemne de rage des carnivores terrestres.
Aussi, je pense que votre enfant n'a pas besoin d'un traitement antirabique post-exposition.
Je suppose que par contre il est correctement vacciné contre le tétanos.



13 december 2003



Je fais des recherche sur la maladie: la rage.
Nous recherchons comment arrive t elle à ce transmettre de l'animal à l'homme.
Je suis en première SVT et ce sujet m'interresse beaucoup.
Je serais très heureuse que vous m'éclairiez sur le sujet ou si vous pouviez me donner des documents.



La rage se transmet généralement par la salive, lors d'une morsure, griffure, léchage sur peau excoriée..., en fin de maladie, lorsque l'animal excrète le virus dans la salive.
Vous pouvez consulter notre site web et les sites liés : http://www.pasteur/sante et http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/rage/ qui vous donnera les liens sur d'autres sites, Organisation mondiale de la Santé, Centers for Disease Control...








29 november 2003
Nous suivons actuellement (depuis le 24 Novembre) à l'Institut Pasteur de Casablanca au Maroc, un traitement (préventif?) en 3 injections à J0, J7, J21 , contre la Rage. En effet notre chienne a été en contact avec un chien enragé (officiellement après examen du corps du chien abattu).
Si pour nous adultes, le risque est moindre voir inexistant, je ne sais pas ce qu'il en est pour mon fils de 15 mois qui a peut-être touché le pelage souillé de la chienne.... qu'en est-il s'il s'est touché la bouche (il perce des dents et la gencive est irritée), les yeux, le nez ?
Je sais que le virus est très fragile mais le lendemain, mon fils a joué à la balle avec notre chienne et a donc été en contact avec sa salive... en revanche, je n'étais pas présente lorsque notre chienne est revenue de sa "malheureuse rencontre" et je ne sais pas si mon fils l'a touchée ou pas dans l'heure qui suivait....



Que se passerait-il si c'était le cas avec le vaccin préventif ? Serait-il assez puissant ?
Nous en sommes à J5 de la 1ere injection (prochaine injection le 01/12) peut-on faire maintenant l'autre vaccin à mon fils ?
Quels sont les risques ?



Que faire au mieux ?
Je suis très inquiète.
Je vous remercie infiniment de votre réponse.



La rage est une maladie qui se transmet par contact direct avec un animal enragé.
Votre chien présentait-il des modifications de son comportement, a-t-il été examiné par un vétérinaire, son contact avec le chien enragé a-t-il été occasionnel ou régulier, votre enfant a-t-il été en contact avec le chien enragé,...
tous ces éléments sont à prendre en compte dans la décision de la mise en route du traitement c'est pourquoi il faut refaire le point avec les médecins du centre antirabique de Casablanca et au moindre doute envisager untraitement curatif en 5 injections et pas seulement préventif en 3 doses.
Le vaccin utilisé est le même c'est seulement le schéma qui est différent.






2000



21 February 2000
I was bitten by my 8 month old dog on Feb. 5, 2000.  He was vaccinated against rabies when he was 4 months old.  Today is Feb. 16, 2000.  He was acting strangely from Feb. 5 - 11 (lethargic, moaning and whining, not sleeping well) but did eat, sleep and urinate/deficate normally.  By the 11th/12th, he was acting like himself again.  Last night, Feb. 15, he again started acting strangely.  As far as I know, he has not been bitten by anything (he has no bites, scratches, or open wounds) but I beleive that while he is outside he may have picked up a Muskrat in his mouth (did not kill or ingest it).  Being that he is vaccinated, and has been under our observation for the past 11 days, what are the chances he may have rabies?  What are the chances I might? 



I have been feeling a bit ill (slight scratchy throat, small cough, slight fever, achy) I did NOT go for the series of shots - should I?  Is it too late?  I am only nervous now, because the dog is acting "strangely" again! (not vicious). He has his periods of time where he seems fine, but then acts strange again.  He only bit me when I tried to take a chew toy from him, but he had never done that before.  Please let me know what you think as soon as possible, as I am worried, but would just like to put my mind at ease.  THANK YOU VERY MUCH!!!



It is always difficult to give comments at distance. Because it is
diffucult to evaluate what is the risk of rabies locally (are there rabies
cases in animals in your region, if your dog can be bitten by wildlife
etc). It is better to check with local health and veterinary authorities.
>From what you wrote, the risk of rabies is small since your pet had been
vaccinated 4 month ago. You should check with your local vet for the
possibility that your dog might have had another disease (viral or
parasitic) other than rabies.








08 February 2000
I live in Labrador, Canada and I had a recent discussion regarding Rabies transmission. Are there reported cases of transmission from wounds inflicted while "skining" a fox? In otherwords can Rabies be transmitted by contact with the animal's blood into a open wound or is the transmission only through saliva,CNS contact and bat urine



There are no published or story about rabies transmission by skinning of
rabid animals. However, this is certainly a high risk fo contamination
because there are reports describing rabies transmission during preparation
of rabid dog meat for human consumption. Only the cook ddied whereas the
cooked meat did not contaminate. Thus, the answer is yes rabies can be
transmitted once the rabid animal has open wounds. I recommand all persons
in contact with wildlife animals to receive a pre-immunization vaccination
and to control the level of antibody each year.








I would like to know how many people have survived after getting rabies ?



The answer is not as simple.
When a patient is bitten and develops rabies, there is almost no chance of
recovery. Extremely rare recovery cases have been reported as exceptions.
The uncertainty is related to the mode of contamination. Many parameters
are involved as to the percentage of an organism to develop rabies after a
bite from a rabid animal. Bite from a wolf is more contagious than that
from a fox. There also differences in rabies strains, site of bite, etc.
Thus the answer is "a bite from a rabid animal does not necessarily result
in transmission of the disease in non treated patients, but the first
clinical signs few days later would signify no possibility of recovery".








Je voudrais demander s'il existe le risque de se contaminer de la rage apres avoire utilise la meme tasse apres une personne infectee de la rage.
je vous remercie en avance.



Madame,
Il n'y a pas eu jusqu'à maintenant de contamination inter humaine autre que
par la greffe de cornée (8 acs rapportés, lesderniers datant d'environ 8
ans).
Il semble très difficile, si ce n'est impossible, de se contaminer en
buvant dans le même verre qu'un personne atteinte de rage. L'excrétion du
virus se fait à la fin de la maladie, à un stade où les patients sont
généralement hydrophobes. En fait, il faudrait savoir quand la personne a
bu par rapport à l'apparition des symptômes et le décès du malade.
Voilà. N'hésitez pas à me recontacter si besoin.








Our 5 year old son was bit on the thumb by what we believe is a "field" mouse.  (brown top, white under, rounded ears)  We are concerned with the possibility of rabies.  Is there a risk of getting rabies from wild mice?  I have kept the mouse but it is now dead.  Any information would be helpful.



It is generally admitted that rodents are not reservoirs and vectors for
rabies. To eliminate any chance that it has been contaminated as a dead
end, you might request the local veterinary services to perform a diagnosis
on the brain.






1999



La salive ainsi que d'autres tissus et liquides biologiques peuvent
contenir du virus en fin de maladie et sont contaminants. Cependant aucun
cas de transmission interhumaine de la rage n'a été formellement rapporté,
à part les cas de greffes de cornée, au nombre de 8 actuellement de par le
monde.
Le traitement après exposition, qui comprend des injections de vaccin et de
sérum, est efficace après la contamination . Il doit être instauré dés que
possible, l'efficacité dépendant d'une course de vitesse entre le vaccin et
le virus.








Can rabies be transmitted via food (frozen turkey) which has been contaminated by a rabid animal  (raccoon)?
Would normal cooking of this turkey destroy the rabies virus??



The risk for rabies after consumption of contaminated food is small since
the virus is easily destroyed by cooking. Hower, there are reports on
contamination through preparation of the food using contaminated dog meat.



filet


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