ECOLOGICAL AND NOSOLOGICAL STUDY OF TICK-BORNE ARBOVIRUS IN SENEGAL. 3. POTENTIAL VECTORS OF THE CCHF VIRUS IN SENEGAL AND MAURITANIA.
The recognition of the wide distribution of the CCHF virus in subsaharian Africa and of hemorrhagic syndromes caused by this virus in Uganda) South Africca, Burkina Faso and Mauritania has stressed the potential threat for human health represented by this virus in black Africa.
The potential vectors of this virus in Senegambia and Mauritania are reviewed. They number ten that have been found spontaneously infected with CCHF virus: one Argasina of the Argasidae family: Argas (Perslcargas) persicus, and nine Ixodina of the Amblyommidae family: Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, B. geigyi, Hyalomma impeltatum, H. impressum, H. marginatum rufipes, H. nitidum, H. truncatum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, To these ten species it is advisable to add H. dromedari found infected in Turkmenistan.
After a recall of the acquired knowledge on the geographical distribution, host preferences and seasonal dynamics of these species, the authors stress the points still to clarify or to deepen in the biology of these species and in their relationships (notably their vectorial ability with the CCHF Vlrus).
The species that must be first studied are Hyalomma marginatum rufipes the afrotropical counterpart of the vector of the Crimean hemorrhagic fever, H. m, marginatum then H. truncatum that seems to have an observed minimum rate particularly high in certain circumstances and that is able to bite man less rarely than H. m. rufipes, At last H. impeltatum and H. impressum able to bite man more or less incidentally, will have to be studied for their ecology and their connections with the CCHF virus. Having also priority is the study of A. variegatum, the larvae and nymphs of which bite commonly man in intertropical Africa, Virological studies will have to consider the induction or the selection by this species of not monly man in intertropical Africa. Virological studies will have to consider the induction or the selection by this species of not very vlrulent strain that do not produce an hemorrhagic symdrome In man, it would be gould to give an acceptable answer to this hypothesis controversial since twenty years or so.