|Yeast Molecular Genetics - CNRS URA2171, Université P. M. Curie UFR927|
|HEAD||Prof. DUJON Bernard / email@example.com|
|MEMBERS||Dr FABRE Emmanuelle / Dr FAIRHEAD Cécile / Dr FISCHER Gilles / KERREST Alix
Dr LAFONTAINE Ingrid / Dr LLORENTE Bertrand / MULLER Héloïse
Dr OZIER-KALOGEROPOULOS Odile / PAYEN Célia / Dr RICHARD Guy-Franck
Dr SACERDOT Christine / TEKAIA Fredj / THERIZOLS Pierre / THIERRY Agnès
The Unité has contributed to the early genome sequencing of the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, back in 1996, and to the considerable development of this micro-organism as a preferred experimental model for functional genomic studies since then. It has also initiated the first large-scale comparative genomic studies of hemiascomycetous species (budding yeasts), in collaboration with five other French laboratories (the Génolevures Consortium), the CNS-Génoscope and the Génopole Pasteur-Ile de France. Recent work and projects of the Unité thus involve the regular confrontation between functional discoveries, essentially derived from experiments with S. cerevisiae, and evolutionary hypotheses, essentially derived from sequence comparisons between yeast species.
Comparative genomics of hemiascomycetous yeasts and the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution.
Their genomes indicate that the evolutionary range of the hemiascomycetous yeast species is much broader than anticipated from their morphological and biological similarities. Four species, representative of different and distant branches of this single eukaryotic group, were completely sequenced and their genomes annotated (http://cbi.labri.fr/Genolevures). One of them, Candida glabrata, is a human pathogen. Multidimensional comparisons, involving these four species and S. cerevisiae, revealed the importance of gene loss and distinct duplication mechanisms in the physiological specificity of the different yeasts. Genes involved in sex, expression silencing, replication, recombination or repair mechanisms as well as tRNA genes, subtelomeric regions and mitochondrial genomes were more specifically analyzed.
Chromosome dynamics, nuclear architecture and their functional and evolutionary consequences.
Rates of genome rearrangements vary between yeast branches, the most unstable ones leading to the pathogenic yeasts. C. glabrata exhibits polymorphic variations between isolates. Several distinct types of large segmental duplications (similar to those observed in the human genome) were recognized experimentally in S. cerevisiae and their formation and stability is analyzed in both wild-type and mutant strains affected in replication and/or recombination mechanisms. Similarly, the stability of genes containing monotonous short sequence repeats, similar to those that determine chromosomal fragility or genetic disabilities in human, is experimentally studied with the help of S. cerevisiae mutants. Finally, we have studied the role of the nuclear pore complex in the anchoring of the chromosomal subtelomeric regions at the nuclear periphery, by combining an artificial strategy of double-strand break formation with fluorescence microscopy examination of living cells in wild-type and mutants strains of S. cerevisiae,
|Publications 2006 of the unit on Pasteur's references database|
Activity Reports 2006 - Institut Pasteur
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