Arnaud  FONTANET
Emerging Diseases Epidemiology Unit
Institut Pasteur 25-28 rue du docteur Roux, 75015 Paris
 
Research area of the Unit
 
The Emerging Diseases Epidemiology Unit (EDEU) was founded on July 1st, 2001. Its mandate was to develop a unique research program in the field of infectious disease epidemiology and to provide expertise in epidemiology and biostatistics to other Institut Pasteur laboratories. During the past ten years, we have built a strong multidisciplinary research team specialized in epidemiology and public health. Our principal interests are the study of infectious and tropical diseases in resource-limited countries, primarily in Africa and Asia. Our collaborative network in the South includes research institutes and universities in ten countries, among which eight belong to the International Network of Institut Pasteur. We have also developed several courses in epidemiology and biostatistics which, combined with courses developed by colleagues from the campus, provide the foundation for a specialization in infectious diseases as part of a new master of public health (http://ecole-pasteur.cnam.fr).
 
Contribution to the programme
 
The EDEU will be particularly involved in epidemiological studies related to the “pathogen discovery” project. These studies will include the identification of abnormal epidemiologicalsituations caused by a putative new infectious agent. In such case, the investigation team will aim atidentifying the transmission modes of the new agent using case-control studies, and collectingsamples for the microbiology teams involved in the “discovery” process. Once the agent is identified,field studies will confirm its causal role in the disease by investigating its presence in series of casesand controls, and will evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the new diagnostic tools developed bythe microbiology team. Mathematical models will predict the potential for large scale epidemics orpandemics. Cohort studies will be launched to describe the natural history of the infection, andidentify factors associated with the development of clinical disease among those infected. In somesituations, clinical trials may be useful to evaluate the efficacy of existing drugs if the newlydiscovered agent shares similarities with other treatable agents.
 
References over the past 5 years
 
Plancoulaine S, Mohamed MK, Arafa N, Bakr I, Rekacewicz C, Tregouet DA, Obach D, El Daly M, Thiers V, Feray C, Abdel-Hamid M, Abel L, Fontanet A. Dissection of familial correlations in hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence suggests intrafamilial viral transmission and genetic predisposition to infection. Gut 2008; 57(9): 1268-74.
 
Tollman SM, Kahn K, Sartorius B, Collinson MA, Clark SJ, Garenne ML. Implications of mortality transition for primary health care in rural South Africa: a population-based surveillance study. Lancet 2008; 372(9642): 893-901.
 
Vray M, Germani Y, Chan S, Duc NH, Sar B, Sarr FD, Bercion R, Rahalison L, Maynard M, L'Her P, Chartier L, Mayaud C. Clinical features and etiology of pneumonia in acid-fast bacillus sputum smear-negative HIV-infected patients hospitalized in Asia and Africa. AIDS 2008; 22(11): 1323-32.
 
Madec Y, Szumilin E, Genevier C, Ferradini L, Balkan S, Pujades M, Fontanet A. Weight gain at 3 months of antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with survival: evidence from two developing countries. AIDS 2009; 23(7): 853-61.
 
Paez Jimenez A, Sharaf Eldin N, Rimlinger F, El-Daly M, El-Hariri H, El-Hoseiny M, Mohsen A, Mostafa A, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Abdel-Hamid M, Fontanet A (corresponding author), Mohamed MK, Thiers V. HCV iatrogenic and intrafamilial transmission in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Gut 2010; 59(11): 1554-60.