Sylvain BRISSE                                                                                                                            
Platform Genotyping of Pathogens and Public Health
Institut Pasteur 25-28 rue du docteur Roux, 75015 Paris
 
Research area of the Unit
 
Our group aims at understanding patterns and processes of microbial diversity at the micro-evolutionary level. We focus mainly on bacterial pathogens and the links between genetic and functional diversity, such as disease potential or ecological adaptation. Our projects include large-scale population structure analyses, fine-typing and evolution of particular pathogenic clones, analyses of the source distribution and epidemiology of bacterial clones, and experimental and theoretical approaches of the bacterial species concept.
 
Contribution to the programme
 
Bacterial species harbor vast amounts of genetic and functional diversity. In pathogenic bacteria, emerging clonal groups that are particularly important given their epidemiology, virulence and drug resistance were identified. However, given the genetic monomorphism of these young pathogenic groups, the evolutionary and spatiotemporal dynamics of their emergence has remained difficult to analyze. Taking advantage of the recent improvement in phylogenetic resolution provided by complete genome sequencing, we wish to develop research into the interplay of evolution and transmission dynamics (phylodynamics) of selected emerging clones. We will aim at determining the genomic (horizontal gene transfer, adaptive changes), historical (demography, phylogeography) and ecological factors, including human-driven changes, that favored emergence of bacterial clones in the recent past. This project will benefit from collaborations with groups that maintain historical strain collections (1930’s – present), global sampling (WHO collaborative centers, international consortia) and precise epidemiological metadata (National Reference Centers, hospital centers). Our main models will include the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and the nosocomial, multidrug resistant pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.
 
References over the past 5 years
1.      Breurec S, Guessennd N, Timinouni M, Le TA, Cao V, Ngandjio A, Randrianirina F, Thiberge JM, Kinana A, Dufougeray A, Perrier-Gros-Claude JD, Boisier P, Garin B, Brisse S. Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins in five African and two Vietnamese major towns: multiclonal population structure with two major international clonal groups, CG15 and CG258. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012.
2.      Decré D, Verdet C, Emirian A, Le Gourrierec T, Petit JC, Offenstadt G, Maury E, Brisse S, Arlet G. Emerging Severe and Fatal Infections Due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in Two University Hospitals in France. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(8):3012-4.
3.      Chenal-Francisque V, Lopez J, Cantinelli T, Caro V, Tran C, Leclercq A, Lecuit M, Brisse S. Worldwide distribution of major clones of Listeria monocytogenes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(6):1110-12.
4.      Diancourt L, Passet V, Nemec A, Dijkshoorn L, Brisse S. The population structure of Acinetobacter baumannii: expanding multiresistant clones from an ancestral susceptible genetic pool. PLoS One. 2010;5(4):e10034.
5.      Brisse S, Fevre C, Passet V, Issenhuth-Jeanjean S, Tournebize R, Diancourt L, Grimont P. Virulent clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae: identification and evolutionary scenario based on genomic and phenotypic characterization. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(3):e4982.
6.      Ragon M, Wirth T, Hollandt F, Lavenir R, Lecuit M, Le Monnier A, Brisse S. A new perspective on Listeria monocytogenes evolution. PLoS Pathogens. 2008;4(9):e1000146.
7.   Schuffenecker I, Iteman I, Michault A, Murri S, Frangeul L, Vaney MC, Lavenir R, Pardigon N, Reynes JM, Pettinelli F, Biscornet L, Diancourt L, Michel S, Duquerroy S, Guigon G, Frenkiel MP, Brehin AC, Cubito N, Despres P, Kunst F, Rey FA, Zeller H, Brisse S. Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak. PLoS Med. 2006;3(7):e263.