Claudius Regaud (1870-1940)
French physician and biologist, born on Jan. 30, 1870 in Lyon (Rhône, France).
1889-1891 Non-resident, then resident in the Hospitals of Lyon.
1893 Ceased his medical activities for a while in order to attend the renown microbiology course of the Institut Pasteur (cours de microbiologie) ; frequented E. Roux 's laboratory, Paris.
1895 Back to Lyon, he commenced research in the Medical School laboratory on histology and general anatomy.
1897 Thesis defense for medical doctorate : "Les vaisseaux lymphatiques du testicule". Wrote the chapter about genital glands of the "Traité d'histologie pratique" by Joseph Renaut.
1901-1909 Associate Professor in histology at the Medical School of Lyon. Developed a mitochondrial staining method (Regaud's method).
1906 Showed the specific radio-sensitivity of the spermatogonia stem cells, demonstrating that their selective damage could cause the phenomenon of X-ray testicle sterilization. Verified the mechanism in other cell lines. Defined the best conditions for selective sterilization of the skin, leading to radio-epidermite exsudative injury. Searched for applying the discovered radiobiological rules to cancer treatment, by irradiating patients with incurable disease. Obtained several promising results.
1909 His position of Associate Professor was extended to 3 years.
1913 Named lecturer at the Institut Pasteur, Paris.
1913-1922 Became head of the laboratory of radiophysiology, in the Radium Institute, newly created by both the Paris University and the Institut Pasteur.
1914-1918 During First World War, served as a medical chief officer in an evacuation hospital. Was mandated to reform the public health services by Justin Godart, who was named State Under-Secretary, in 1915. As such, he set up surgical teams and emergency motor vehicles. Created a great model therapeutic center, "Le groupement des services chirurgicaux et scientifiques", on the French war front around Bouleuse, in order to provide training in surgical treatments of injuries for the mobilized physicians. Collaborated with : Guillain, Lemaitre, J. Magrou, P. Masson, Nogier, Policard, Rosenthal, Roux-Berger.
1915 Named in succession "Chevalier" (1915), "Officier" (1921) and "Commandeur" (1930) of the "Légion d'Honneur".
1918 Returned to research at the Curie Institute, collaborated with the staff he had recruited in the army during the war. Developed new curie-therapeutic materials and methods (radium charged needles for radium-puncture, standard tubes for controlled radium activity and filtration, plastic clay serving as a support for juxta-cutaneous therapy). From the radiobiological experimental datas, practical methods of both curie- and roentgen-therapies were improved : choice of the most accurate selective radiation, increase in the number of active sources and opening gates providing for wide-spreading effects, long-continued treatments till completion. From the therapeutic results, some cancers, such as cervical and tongue epitheliomas, turned out curable in a large number of cases.
1919-1936 With L. Martin 's and E. Roux's supports, founded a clinic for cancerous patients as well as a laboratory on radium therapy at the Institut Pasteur's hospital.
1921 With Marie Curie, submitted the draft of a foundation, which could be entitled to receive donations and bequests, for the approval of the board of Curie Institute's directors. The Curie Foundation was recognized public utility on May 27, 1921.
1922 Named director of the Curie Foundation.
1923 Made a speech to celebrate Marie Curie's work, on the occasion of the opening of the clinic established by the Curie Foundation.
1922-1936 Named lecturer in radiophysiology and radiotherapy of malignant tumors, annual complementary course on medical radiology, School of medicine, Paris.
1924 Elected member of the French Academy of Medicine, Paris.
1927 Became member of the editorial board of the Index Analyticus Cancerologiae review, including A. Borrel, J. de Nobèle, H. Hartmann, A. Lacassagne, G. Roussy. The review was published by the French League Against Cancer.
1928 Chair, League of Nations Under-commission on Cancer Radiotherapy.
1932 Member of a French government's delegation which moved to Poland for the opening of the Marie Sklodowska-Curie radium Institute. Held several lectures in Warsaw.
1934 Gave three seminars in Moscow and three others in Leningrad, USSR, during a mission organized by both the French and Soviet governments.
1935 Elected vice-chairman of the Society of Biology (Société de biologie ), of which he had been member since 1913.
1936 Elected president of the Association of Anatomists, of which he had been member since 1899 ; elected president of the French Association for Cancer Study.
1940 Died in Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or (Rhône, France) on Dec. 29, 1940.
Collaborators : F. Barjon, J. Baud, J. Blanc, H. Cesbron, R. Crémieu, H. Coutard, A. Debierne, G. Dubreuil, R. Ferroux, G. Gricouroff, A. Hautant, A. Lacassagne, M. Lyonnet, J. Mollard, O. Monod, S. Mutermilch, Nachet, Th. Nogier, J. Pierquin, J. Renaut, L. Reverchon, G. Richard, J.-L. Roux-Berger, E. Villela, E. Weill.
Biographical reference tools :
- Regaud (Jean), "Claudius Regaud", Paris, Maloine éd., 233 p.
archives scientifiques - scientific archives - biologie - biology - [IP_19722_dd]