Albert Raynaud (1914-1999)
French biologist, born on March 3rd, 1914, in Vabre (Tarn) ; was brought up among a Protestant family ; attended the elementary school in Vabre ; lost his father, who had been working as a bookkeeper, in 1926.
High school degree in mathematics and philosophy ("baccalauréat"), then PCN degree (physics, chemistry and biology).
1934 Graduated in sciences from the university of Toulouse.
1935 Entered the A. Vandel's laboratory of zoology at the university of Toulouse ; conducted research on sex chromosomes in rodents ; graduated in zoology.
1936-1938 As A. Vandel advised for him to do, stayed several times for training at the zoological station in Wimereux, directed by M. Caullery ; as a Busiel Research Fellow's grant-holder, entered the A. Lacassagne 's laboratory, at the Radium Institute in Paris ; commenced research in embryology and endocrinology (the role of hormones in the development of the genital apparatus in mice ; the embryonic development of the mammary gland and the effects of sex hormones). 1938-1939 Attended the microbiology course at the Institut Pasteur in Paris (cours de microbiologie).
1939 Conducted research on small mammals in Corsica, with the support of the Public Fund for Scientific Research.
1939-1940 During Second World War, served as a second lieutenant (artillery).
1940-1942 After he had been demobilized, returned to research at the Pasteur laboratory in the Radium Institute, as a grant-holder of the Public Fund for Scientific Research.
1940-1944 Under the Institut Pasteur's mandate, traveled to Vabre for conducting seasonal research on the salivary glands in field mice, searching for virus ; when staying there, contacted the French Resistance ; in 1944, joined the "Forces Françaises Libres", in the ranks of which he was wounded during the German campaigns.
1942 Appointed as research assistant at the Institut Pasteur ; thesis defense for doctorate in sciences : "Modifications expérimentales de la différenciation sexuelle des embryons de souris par action des hormones androgènes et oestrogènes".
1942 Married Miss Jeanne Chaulin-Servinière, who was the L. Blaizot 's niece and the G. Blanc 's stepdaughter.
1943-1959 With M. Frilley, a physicist from the Curie Institute, continued research on the functions of the endocrinal glands in the fetus of mice ; they provided evidence that the masculine making of the male genital apparatus in fetus was due to the activity of a male hormone produced by the fetal testicles : by deprivation of either testicles or ovaries, the sexually undifferentiated reproductive apparatus could be shifted to the female type in both sexes.
1947-1958 With his wife Jeanne Raynaud, and as a part of his research on the embryonic development of the mammary gland in mice, showed for the first time that an hormone could cause mammary congenital malformations ; oestrogens could be involved in severe teratogenic effects on the developing mammary gland.
1948-1963 Gave annual lectures in the action of X-rays on the genital glands and on the embryo, at the medical school of Paris (national degree in radiology).
1953 Appointed as head of laboratory at the Institut Pasteur ; an allergic disease to furry animals (including the laboratory mice) was to force him to reorientate his research towards normal and experimental embryology in snakes and batrachians ; with the director J. Tréfouël 's agreement, his laboratory was relocated to the older E. Roux 's country house at Sannois ; there, a laboratory had been equipped to his use for accomodating his new research (terrarium, fish tanks, X-ray apparatus).
1955 Was rewarded by the Louis Bonneau prize from the French Academy of sciences, for his works in fetal endocrinology.
1965 Unanimously promoted to as research director of the CNRS, by the CNRS Committee for animal biology, of which J. Monod was a member.
1972 Took part in a mission for teaching and conducting zoological research (collecting isopods) in Afghanistan and in India.
1972-1977 Appointed as director of the CNRS, in charge of the research Unit ER121 (dealing with the morphogenesis of limbs and joints in reptiles species with either developed limbs or not).
1974 Was rewarded by the Albert 1er de Monaco prize from the French Academy of sciences ; attended the Indo-French meeting on comparative embryology and endocrinology in reptiles, held in Banaras, India.
1975 Elected president of the French Zoological Society.
1978 Elected corresponding member of the French Academy of medicine (department of medicine and social sciences).
1978 After retiring from the Institut Pasteur, left Sannois and went to Vabre ; became a member of a local association ("Société des Amis du Pays Vabrais"), giving lectures, arranging scientific exhibitions in the village, being an ardent activist in favour of the protection of the native fauna and flora.
Although retired, continued research on the embryology of reptiles and slow worms at the university of Toulouse, as well as at his Vabre's house, where he made a laboratory built for his use ; devoted himself to understanding the mechanisms involved in the embryonic reduction of limbs in reptiles and in the experimental induction of the development of limbs in legless snakes.
1982 At the American company Lillie's request, went to Indiapolis (USA) and gave a lecture on the effect of oestrogens on the fetal development in animals and humans.
1984 Reported his work on the effects of various chemical drugs upon the developing vertebrate embryos, before the scientific advisory board of the area Midi-Pyrénées.
1986 Attended the International CNRS Symposium on ontogenesis and evolution.
1991 Elect honorary chair, at the meeting celebrating the 20th anniversary of the foundation of the "Société d'Herpétologie de France" (learned society of herpetology).
1999 On Nov.22, died in Vabre.
Collaborators : M. Adrian, P. Ancel, J.-J. Ayral, P.-C. Blin, P. Boulay, J. Bons, J. Brabet, P. Clairembault, M. Clergue-Gazeau, A. Collenot, S. Cros, P. Delost, Dobrovolskaia-Zavadskaia, J. Fretey, M. Frilley, J.-P. Gasc, M. Gontcharoff, H. Heim de Balsac, J.-Cl. Jeanny, P. Kan, S. kouprach, A. Lacassagne, H. Okuzumi, J.-L. Perret, Cl. Pieau, J. Raynaud, J.-L. Raynaud, S. Renous, D. Robinet, P. van den Elzen, J. Vasse.
Biographical reference tools :
- Scientific records of Albert Raynaud (Archives Pasteur, TRE.DS.105)
Service des Archives de l'Institut Pasteur