Edmond Nocard (1850-1903)
French veterinarian and biologist, born on Jan.29, 1850 in Provins (Seine-et-Marne, France). His parents were timber merchants.
1867-1868 After graduating from the high school, appointed as a notary clerk during one year.
1868-1871 Enrollment in veterinary training at the Alfort Veterinary School.
1870-1871 At the outset of the Franco-Prussian war, served in the fifth regiment of Lancers.
1871-1873 Resumed his veterinary studies and graduated from the Alfort Veterinary School as valedictorian of his class, on Aug. 1873.
1873 (Nov.)-1878 Appointed as head of clinical service at the Alfort Veterinary School, where he met Dr. Dumesnil, who was a physician, as well as Josias, who was one of his fellow teachers ; with Dumesnil, he met some Republican party's leaders and opened his mind to their ideas ; in Josias's family, he met and married his wife ; less than a year after her marriage, Mrs Nocard died leaving a frail daughter. 1876-1884 When the journal Recueil d'Alfort (edited by Veterinary Schools Superintendent H. Bouley) ceased publication, he edited Les Archives vétérinaires which provided a great deal of reports in the fields of medicine, surgery, hygiene and laws.
1877-1880 Elected recording secretary at the Society for public health and occupational safety of which he was a founder member ; became assistant secretary general in 1879.
1878 With H. Bouley, attended the 9th International Congress of Hygiene in Paris as a recording secretary ; reported methods for controlling and ensuring the highest quality of meat.
1878-1883 Named recording secretary at the Central Society of Veterinary Medicine of which he had been a member since 1876.
1878-1887 Following a competitive examination, appointed as a teacher at the chair of surgical pathology in the Alfort Veterinary School.
1879 Developed a new surgical technique named the "clou de rue" (a serious disease of the horse's foot).
1880 Entered the L. Pasteur's laboratory at the Ecole Normale Supérieur in Paris. As a deleguate of the French department of trade and agriculture, attended the International Congress of Hygiene in Turin.
1881-1882 After observing the L. Pasteur's experiments with anthrax vaccine at Pouilly-le-Fort, he vaccinated thousands of animals against anthrax, in collaboration with E. Roux.
1883 Traveled to Egypt with E. Roux, I. Straus and L. Thuillier in order to study a human cholera outbreak ; they failed to isolate the causative agent of the disease. In addition, conducted research on bovine pestis epidemic and its prevalence in Egypt.
1883-1886 By returning to Alfort, created an annexe of the L. Pasteur's laboratory in the yard Les Forges ; published a series of papers describing innovative methods : among them, methods for collecting blood serum, new culture medium for growing the tubercle bacilli and the avian bacilli in particular, development of new surgical techniques such as the high plantar neurectomy in horses, anesthesia by using intravenous injection of chloral for large animals, use of chloral for struggling against tetanus crisis.
1884 Appointed as sub-editor then chief editor of the Recueil de medecine vétérinaire, which had been merged with the Archives vétérinaires.
1885 Deputy chair, National Congress of Veterinarians in Paris.
1886 Elected president of the Central Society of Veterinary Medicine ; became a member of the National Academy of Medicine in Paris (section of veterinary medicine) ; traveled to area of Nièvre and conducted research on animal healthcare which led to his recommendation of preventive measures.
1887-1891 Appointed as director of the Alfort Veterinary School, as well as professor at the chair of animal contagious diseases.
1887-1890 With Veterinarian Mollereau, published a monograph on streptococcal mastitis in cows, in which he reported the isolation of the causative pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae), the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease as well as preventive measures. Undertook a similar study on gangrenous mastitis in ewes ; with Roux, he described the properties of a glycerin-containing medium for growing the tubercle bacilli ; conducted research on symptomatic anthrax, vaccination of herbivorous animals against rabies ; highlighted the etiology of psittacosis but failed to isolate the causative agent.
1888 Became a member of the first editorial board of the Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, along with Ch. Chamberland, E. Duclaux, J.-J. Grancher, E. Roux, I. Straus. In Guadeloupe, isolated the causative agent of farcy in oxes, that he named streptothrix farcinica. 1889 During the First Congress for Tuberculosis, he obtained that tuberculosis is recognized as a contagious disease and recommended the establishment of preventive measures.
1891 (Jan.) Resigned from his office of director of the School of Alfort but continued research.
1892-1896 Through a series of reports, lectures, booklets and demonstrations in the field, argued for the use of R. Koch's tuberculin as a basic measure in the bovine tuberculosis prevention ; following the discovery of mallein by the Russian scientists Helman and Kalning, devoted himself to the prevention of horse glander, in collaboration with Army's veterinarians ; he contributed to the disappearance of the disease in France.
1895 With L. Vaillard, became a member of the Institut Pasteur's Assembly ; published a paper entitled "bovine tuberculosis : dangers and links with human tuberculosis".
1897 Became an honorary member of the French Society of Biology (Société de Biologie).
1898 With E. Roux, A. Borrel, A. Salimbeni and Ed. Dujardin-Beaumetz, discovered the causative agent of bovine pleuropneumonia (a filtrating virus).
1903 On Aug.2, died in Saint-Maurice (Val-de-Marne) ; E. Roux and E. Metchnikoff represented the Institut Pasteur during the funeral.
Collaborators : A. Borrel, H. Bouley, Ed. Dujardin-Beaumetz, A. Josias, E. Leclainche, Mégnin, Mollereau, E. Roux, A. Salimbeni, Trasbot.
Biographical reference tools :
- Nocard (Edmond), Exposé des titres et travaux scientifiques de Ed. Nocard, Paris, A. Parent, A. Davy imp., 1886, 26 p.
- Chauvau, E. Leclainche, E. Roux, Edmond Nocard 1850-1903, Paris, Masson et Cie éd., 1906, 85 p.
Service des Archives de l'Institut Pasteur