André Chantemesse (1851-1919)
French physician and bacteriologist born on Oct. 13, 1851 in Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire, France). His father was a lace manufacturer.
1861-1871 Traveled to Paris in order to work in the lace industry.
1876 At age 25, enrolled in medical training at the Medical School of Paris ; served as a non-resident medical student (1877-1879), then as an "interne des hôpitaux" (medical internship) in Paris (1880-1885).
1881 Assistant researcher at the Ecole des Hautes-Etudes in Paris.
1883-1886 Assistant researcher in the pathological anatomy laboratory at the Faculty of Medicine, Paris, then assistant professor in bacteriology at the same laboratory (1886-1897).
1884 Thesis defense for medical doctorate, with a dissertation on adult tuberculous meningitis titled Etude sur la méningite tuberculeuse de l'adulte : les formes anormales en particulier.
1885 The Ministry for Public Education assigned a training course in bacteriology to him, at the Robert Koch's laboratory, Berlin.
1885-1897 As a physician, joined the team at the service de la rage (service for rabies treatment), which had been established by Louis Pasteur in rue Vauquelin, Paris, then in rue Dutot, at the Institut Pasteur, in 1888.
1886 Began extensive research on typhoid fever : in 1897, in collaboration with F. Widal, demonstrated that each time distribution of Seine river water had been made, there was an increase in the entries of typhoid fever in the hospitals ; he showed that some oysters could cause the disease (1896) and that healthy carriers of the typhoid bacillus could spread it (1902) ; using animal experiments, he succeeded in preventing typhoid by injection of heat-killed bacteria ; from 1896, this method was used for human prophylaxis, in Germany and England.
1887 Appointed as auditor at the French Advisory Committee, then became a full member in 1892.
1888 Earned the Bréant prize from the French Academy of Sciences, for his work on the aetiology of typhoid fever, in collaboration with G.-F. Widal ; obtained the Bellion prize from the same academy, in 1909. Married Alice Glachet, with whom he had a son, Robert Chantemesse.
1890 Became a member of the board, at the Institut Pasteur.
1893 At Sultan Abdul-Hamid's request, Louis Pasteur assigned a mission to Constantinople (Turkey) to him, for studying a cholera outbreak there ; organized the fight against the epidemic (building three stations for disinfection, recruiting a staff in charge of disinfecting) ; wellcomed M. Nicolle, who replaced him at the head of the Imperial Institute for Bacteriology, in Constantinople.
1893-1908 Appointed as deputy Inspector General in the sanitary services, then as Inspector General (1903). Cared for Louis Pasteur in the last few years of his life.
1897-1903 Professor of comparative and experimental pathology at the Faculty of Medicine, Paris.
1899 Became a permanent member of the French Society of Biology (Société de Biologie).
1901 Became a member of the French Academy of Medicine.
1904 Became a member of the editorial board of Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, along with : A. Calmette, Ch. Chamberland, J.-J. Grancher, A. Laveran, E. Metchnikoff, E. Roux, L. Vaillard.
1906 Started and ran the monthly journal L'hygiène générale et appliquée.
1907 Belonged to the editorship for the Traité d'hygiène, by Brouardel and Mosny ; some other scientists from the Institut Pasteur contributed to the treaty : E. Marchoux, F. Noc, H. Pottevin , Et. Sergent, Ed. Sergent and P.-L. Simond.
1908 Appointed as sanitary technical adviser by the Ministry of the Interior ; elected vice-chair of the French Society of Exotic Pathology (Société de Pathologie Exotique, SPE).
1909 Elected member of the board of directors, at the Institut Pasteur.
1919 Died, on Feb. 25.
Collaborators : F. Borel, Brouardel, Clado, Cornil, Delamotte, Dieulafoy, Dupuy, d'Heilly, Kahn, Lamy, F. Le Dantec, Le Noir, R. Marie, Moriez, Podwyssotsky, Ramond, Rey, Rodriguez, Sainton, Tenesson, Valude, F. Widal.
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