Maurice Caullery (1868-1958)
French biologist, born on Sept. 5, 1868 in Bergues (Nord, France). His father took up a career in the army and served as a captain at the end of his life.
1875-1877 Went to school in Le Quesnoy (Nord).
1877-1887 High school studies in Douai (Nord).
1887-1891 Successful candidate in entrance examinations for both the "Ecole Polytechnique" and the "Ecole Normale Supérieure" ; chose the latter school, where he met his school-friend Félix Mesnil ; attended the lessons of A. Giard who took his students for holiday trainings to the zoological station at Wimereux (Pas-de-Calais).
1888 (Oct.) Attended the inaugural ceremony of the Institut Pasteur, in Paris (rue Dutot), as a delegate of the Ecole Normale's students.
1891-1892 With F. Mesnil, obtained a grant for a study trip and visited German and European laboratories, where he met successively : R. Hertwig and K. von Zittel (Munich) ; F. Vejdovsky (Prague) ; E. Haeckel (Iena) ; W. Flemming (Kiel) ; A.A. Hubrecht and T.W. Engelmann (Utrecht) ; M. Weber (Amsterdam) ; P. Pelseneer (Ghent) ; Ch. Julin (Liege).
1892-1895 Appointed as lecturer at the Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris. 1895 Appointed as research assistant at the University of Sciences, Paris ; thesis defense for doctorate in Natural Sciences, which dissertation topic was Contributions à l'étude des Ascidies composées (contributions to the study of tunicates).
1896-1900 Succeeded F. Le Dantec as professor at the University of Sciences, Lyon. About the Dreyfus affair, he took sides with the captain.
1896-1921 With F. Mesnil, devoted himself to zoological investigations during the summer, in the Saint Martin cove ; published a series of reports.
1900 On Nov. 3, married Sabine Hubert, with whom he had four children (Solange, Denise, Francine and Michel).
1900-1903 Succeeded A.F. Marion as professor at the University of Marseille.
1903-1909 Taught as professor at the Sorbonne University, in Paris, and worked at the laboratory in evolution of organized beings, directed by A. Giard ; there, he met J. Bonnier, Ed. Bordage, A. Chappelier, Ph. François, E. Guyénot, Et. Rabaud, P. Wintrebert.
1904 Attended the international meeting of zoology in Bern (Switzerland), where he met Fritz Schaudinn.
1906 Training at the biological station in Naples (Italy), along with H. Driesch, H. Speman, M. de Sélys Longchamps, R. Pearl ; he was present at the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in March, which he went climbing in May. 1908 Nominated at the position as assistant director of the zoological station at Wimereux.
1909 When A. Giard died, became a member of the editorial board of the Bulletinscientifique de la France et de la Belgique along with L. Blaringhem, G. Bohn, Ch. Julin, F. Mesnil, P. Pelseneer, Et. Rabaud ; succeeded A. Giard as head of the laboratory in evolution of organized beings and as director of the zoological station at Wimereux.
1910 With F. Mesnil, took part in the international meeting of zoology in Grasz and visited several universities in South Germany.
1915 Elected president of the French zoological society.
1916 Taught at the Harvard University, Cambridge (USA), as a visiting professor ; visited the USA.
1917 Published Les universités et la vie universitaire aux Etats-Unis (universities and university life in the USA) ; inspired by the model of the U.S. academic clubs, co-founded with Max Leclerc (director of the Librairie Armand Colin publishing firm ) the society Pour le rapprochement universitaire (toward a rapprochement between universities), then the Cercle de la renaissance française (club of the French Revival) ; became a member of the Ligue civique (civic league).
1917-1939 Became a member of the club "Autour du monde" (around the world) along with former grant-holders of the Tour du Monde grant, established by A. Kahn.
1918-1958 With his wife Sabine, became a member of the community La Colonie, at Condé-sur-Vègre ; wrote several scientific reports, as well as his autobiography ; met there several scientists from the Institut Pasteur, such as J. Bordet, E. Metchnikoff, Malfitano, E. Marchoux, A. Salimbeni, who were used to be invited during the summer by another member (the wife of architect Marius Poulet).
1919 Gave lectures at the French Institute in Madrid.
1923 Inaugurated the new laboratory in evolution of organized beings, in Paris (Boulevard Raspail).
1924 Took part in the creation of the PUF publishing firm, short for Presses Universitaires de France, and became a member of its board of directors.
1925 Published "Histoire des sciences biologiques" (history of biology).
1927 Vice president of the French delegation, at the 10th. international meeting of zoology, in Budapest ; president of the French delegation at the 5th. international meeting of genetics, in Berlin.
1928 Elected member at the French Academy of Sciences (section of zoology and anatomy) ; gave lectures at the Franco-Brazilian Institute, in Rio de Janeiro.
1929 Became a member of the general assembly of the Institut Pasteur, along with V. Morax, R. Sabouraud and C. Delezenne.
1929 Traveled to Algeria, where Ed. Sergent showed him the Pasteur Institute as well as its annexes, in Alger ; a car accident, in which his wife and his daughter Denise failed to die, put an end to this trip.
1930 Elected president of the permanent Committee for the international meetings of zoology ; gave lectures in Zagreb and Ljubljana.
1931 Published "Le problème de l'évolution" (the problem of evolution).
1933 Published "La science française depuis le XVIIe siècle" (French science since the seventeenth century) ; traveled to the USA for the second time.
1939 On Feb. 25, M. Caullery's Jubilee Scientific Conference, at the Sorbonne University, Paris.
1940 Retired from the university ; P.-P. Grassé succeeded him as director of the laboratory in evolution of organized beings.
1941 Published "Les étapes de la biologie" (the stages of biology), as the first issue of the series "Que sais-je ?", PUF (Publishing Company).
1942-1958 Elected member of the board of trustees, at the Thiers foundation.
1942 On April 2, he was arrested by German Police and jailed in Fresnes during three days.
1945 Elected president of the French Academy of Sciences.
1946 Elected president of the Société de biologie (French society of biology).
1958 On July 13, died in Paris.
Collaborators : A. Chappellier, M. Comas, A. Giard, A. Lavallée, F. Mesnil, P. Pelseneer, M. Siedlecki.
Biographical reference tools :
- Keilin (David), "Maurice Caullery 1868-1958", Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of The Royal Society, vol. 6, 1960, p. 13-31.
- Telkès (Eva), Maurice Caullery un biologiste au quotidien 1868-1958 (from Souvenirs d'un biologiste by M. Caullery), Presse Universitaire de Lyon, 1993, 366 p.
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