4.3. Input

As you can print results on the screen, you can read data from the keyboard which is the standard input device. Python provides the raw_input function for that, which is used as follows:

>>> nb = raw_input("Enter a number, please:")
Enter a number, please:12

The prompt argument is optional and the input has to be terminated by a return.


raw_input always returns a string, even if you entered a number. Therefore you have to convert the string input by yourself into whatever you need. Table 4.3 gives an overview of all possible type conversion function.

>>> nb
>>> type(nb)
<type 'str'>
>>> nb = int(nb)
>>> nb
>>> type(nb)
<type 'int'>

Notice that a user can enter whatever he wants. So, the input is probably not what you want, and the type conversion can therefore fail. It is careful to test before converting input strings.

>>> nb = raw_input("Please enter a number:")
Please enter a number:toto
>>> nb
>>> int(nb)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?
ValueError: invalid literal for int(): toto
The following function controls the input:
def read_number():
    while 1:
        nb = raw_input("Please enter a number:")
            nbconv = int(nb)
            print nb, "is not a number."
    return nb

and produces the following output:
>>> read_number()
Please enter a number:toto
toto is not a number.
Please enter a number:12

Table 4.3. Type conversion functions

int(x [,base])converts x to an integer
long(x [,base])converts x to a long integer
float(x)converts x to a floating-point number
complex(real [,imag])creates a complex number
str(x)converts x to a string representation
repr(x)converts x to an expression string
eval(str)evaluates str and returns an object
tuple(s)converts a sequence object to a tuple
list(s)converts a sequence object to a list
chr(x)converts an integer to a character
unichr(x)converts an integer to a Unicode character
ord(c)converts a character to its integer value
hex(x)converts an integer to a hexadecimal string
oct(x)converts an integer to an octal string