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They have a special |

Here are some examples:

>>> 'GTnnAC' + 'GAATTC' 'GTnnACGAATTC' >>> 'GAATTC' * 3 'GAATTCGAATTCGAATTC' >>> 'n' in 'GTnnAC' 1This is only a simpler way of writing these functions provided by Python, because humans are in general more familiar with this syntax closely related to the mathematical formal language.